We recorded hummingbird visits to 51 plant species, considering subspecies and varieties separately (Table 1), of which 43.1% (N = 22) were ornithophilous, 29% (N = 15) were mellitophilous, 14% (N = 7) were entomophilous
, four species (8%) presented intermediate attributes between chiropterophily and ornithophily syndrome, one (2%) species was chiropterophilous and one (2%) species was sphingophilous (Appendix 1).
Although recognized as vital to the reproductive fitness of plants, surprisingly few studies of the reproductive biology of rare entomophilous
species (Kevan, 1975; Buchmann and Nabhan, 1996; Kearns and Inouye, 1997; Spira, 2001) and even fewer comparative studies involving pollen limitation as a cause of rarity have been conducted (Sutherland, 1986; Burd, 1994; Larson and Barrett, 2000).
New species of entomophilous
mites family Acaridae (Sarcoptiformes) of Lower Egypt fauna.
Additionally one species (Inga vera) was classified as generalist (species that could be pollinated by more than two pollinator groups, including vertebrate and invertebrate pollinators) and another species (Serjania glutinosa) as entomophilous
(species that could be pollinated by species of more than two invertebrate groups).
Nectar and pollen are two of the rewards that plants offer to pollinators, so according to this, entomophilous
plants can be divided into three groups: (1) nectariferous, (2) polliniferous and (3) nectariferous-polliniferous.
Pacini (1997) suggested that orbicules are absent in species with a strictly entomophilous
pollination in which pollenkitt is present, and that they only occur in anemophilous species (without pollenkitt) and entomophilous
angiosperms with a non-specific pollination syndrome: <<Only few taxa with a parietal tapetum with a strong entomophilous
syndrome, such as the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and orchids lack Ubisch bodies entirely>> (Pacini & Franchi, 1993: 5).
The fertilization and insect visitors of our earliest entomophilous
Most vegetables from the Brassicaceae family, which are commercially exploited, are represented by hybrids whose seed production depends on entomophilous
pollination (Syafaruddin et al., 2006).
Palms show a great diversity in pollination syndrome but are predominantly entomophilous
and beetles-pollinated (Henderson, 1986; Silberbauer, 1990).
maculata), where spontaneous selfing is common, but overall, the flowers of most Mediterranean orchid species are entomophilous
. Pollinator records include representatives primarily in the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera.
baldensis are strongly analogous to those seen in the entomophilous
Rhynchospora Vahl sect.
Ericaceae in temperate and subtropical latitudes are usually entomophilous
, with bees seeking nectar, collecting pollen, or both.