entomophily

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Related to entomophilous: anemophilous, ornithophilous

entomophily

the POLLINATION of plants by insects. Such animal pollinators are one of the two main mechanisms for the transport of pollen to the stigma, the other being ANEMOPHILY. In entomophilous flowers the colours are adapted to their pollinators, for example, moths are mainly active at dusk and at night and they visit flowers that are mostly white; bees cannot see red and will visit mainly blue or yellow flowers. Many flowers have patterns visible only with ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT which insects (but not mammals) can detect. Deep flowers are pollinated by insects with long mouthparts, and short flowers by insects with short mouthparts, an example of COEVOLUTION of plants and insects.
References in periodicals archive ?
We recorded hummingbird visits to 51 plant species, considering subspecies and varieties separately (Table 1), of which 43.1% (N = 22) were ornithophilous, 29% (N = 15) were mellitophilous, 14% (N = 7) were entomophilous, four species (8%) presented intermediate attributes between chiropterophily and ornithophily syndrome, one (2%) species was chiropterophilous and one (2%) species was sphingophilous (Appendix 1).
Although recognized as vital to the reproductive fitness of plants, surprisingly few studies of the reproductive biology of rare entomophilous species (Kevan, 1975; Buchmann and Nabhan, 1996; Kearns and Inouye, 1997; Spira, 2001) and even fewer comparative studies involving pollen limitation as a cause of rarity have been conducted (Sutherland, 1986; Burd, 1994; Larson and Barrett, 2000).
New species of entomophilous mites family Acaridae (Sarcoptiformes) of Lower Egypt fauna.
Additionally one species (Inga vera) was classified as generalist (species that could be pollinated by more than two pollinator groups, including vertebrate and invertebrate pollinators) and another species (Serjania glutinosa) as entomophilous (species that could be pollinated by species of more than two invertebrate groups).
Nectar and pollen are two of the rewards that plants offer to pollinators, so according to this, entomophilous plants can be divided into three groups: (1) nectariferous, (2) polliniferous and (3) nectariferous-polliniferous.
Pacini (1997) suggested that orbicules are absent in species with a strictly entomophilous pollination in which pollenkitt is present, and that they only occur in anemophilous species (without pollenkitt) and entomophilous angiosperms with a non-specific pollination syndrome: <<Only few taxa with a parietal tapetum with a strong entomophilous syndrome, such as the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and orchids lack Ubisch bodies entirely>> (Pacini & Franchi, 1993: 5).
Most vegetables from the Brassicaceae family, which are commercially exploited, are represented by hybrids whose seed production depends on entomophilous pollination (Syafaruddin et al., 2006).
Palms show a great diversity in pollination syndrome but are predominantly entomophilous and beetles-pollinated (Henderson, 1986; Silberbauer, 1990).
maculata), where spontaneous selfing is common, but overall, the flowers of most Mediterranean orchid species are entomophilous. Pollinator records include representatives primarily in the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera.
baldensis are strongly analogous to those seen in the entomophilous Rhynchospora Vahl sect.
Ericaceae in temperate and subtropical latitudes are usually entomophilous, with bees seeking nectar, collecting pollen, or both.