The use of the CDAI means that disease features of PsA such as enthesitis
, psoriasis, and dactylitis were not captured in the assessment of LDA.
-Related Arthritis (ERA) is a subtype that has replaced, but is not exactly overlapping with, previous definitions in children such as juvenile ankylosing spondylitis or syndrome of seronegative enthesitis
sup] A research in 2014 applied quantitative CEUS to the evaluation of enthesitis
Another important clinical feature of PsA is enthesitis
frequently affecting the Achilles tendon.
13] Musculoskeletal involvement such as arthritis, arthralgia, enthesitis
, and sacroiliitis can be also seen in the course of FMF.
It comes in the differential diagnosis of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Reiter's disease, ankylosing spondylitis with enthesitis
and inflammatory bowel disease associated arthritis.
The presentation of the clinical phenotype of AS patients was as follows: 51 (100%) patients were diagnosed with sacroiliitis and enthesitis
, 17 (33.
Symptoms include joint pain and stiffness, skin and nail psoriasis, swollen toes and fingers and persistent painful enthesitis
(inflammation of the sites where tendons or ligaments insert into the bone).
Inflammatory back pain (IBP) and enthesitis
are hallmarks of this family of disorders that can affect both axial and peripheral joints.
In terms of PsA treatment approaches, an evidence review that he and his associates in GRAPPA published in 2009 found that biologies (anti-tumor necrosis factor inhibitors) as a group were effective in all five domains of the disease: peripheral arthritis, skin and nail disease, axial disease, dactylitis, and enthesitis
, while the oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were effective for peripheral arthritis and skin and nail disease.
The resulting arthritis is characterised by asymmetrical arthritis, usually in the lower limbs, inflammatory eye disease, enthesitis
(inflammation of tendons and ligaments at their insertions into bones), dactylitis (painful inflammation of fingers or toes), spondylitis (inflammation of the vertebrae) and sacroiliitis.
HLA-DR17 is associated with enthesitis
in psoriatic arthritis.