A great number of hormones secreted by different types of enteroendocrine cells
present in the epithelium lining the gastrointestinal tract are now known.
Erdmann et al., "Neuroepithelial circuit formed by innervation of sensory enteroendocrine cells
," Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.
At this early stage, there were no enteroendocrine cells
. At 11 weeks, a few enteroendocrine cells
could be observed in the intestinal crypt.
 The stem cells give rise to all epithelial cells including the enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells
and Tuft cells.
It is produced and secreted mainly by enteroendocrine cells
located in the intestinal epithelial layer.
Intestinal microbes affect the proliferation and differentiation of the cryptal epithelial cells by changing the production of mucus (17) or antimicrobial proteins (18) by goblet cells, the production and release of biologically active peptides by enteroendocrine cells
, (19) or the epithelial cell kinetics.
Craig Smith, a Senior Lecturer in Molecular Cell Physiology, said that their research centred on enteroendocrine cells
that 'taste' what we eat and in response release a cocktail of hormones that communicate with the pancreas, to control insulin release to the brain, to convey the sense of being full and to optimize and maximize digestion and absorption of nutrients.
In addition, the gut specific sensory, sympathetic nerves, and enteroendocrine cells
can trigger the release of CRF (Karalis et al., 1991; Tache and Bonaz, 2007).
GLP-1, an endogenous 30-amino-acid peptide produced in enteroendocrine cells
of intestine, stimulates glucosedependent insulin secretion [30, 31].
Sharkey, "Consequences of Citrobacter rodentium infection on enteroendocrine cells
and the enteric nervous system in the mouse colon," Cellular Microbiology, vol.
With large quantities of goblet cells, which help control the immune response to proteins found in food, scientists could study food allergies; with enteroendocrine cells
, which release hunger hormones, they could test new treatments for obesity.
The immature primitive stem cells localized in the crypts lead to the formation of distinct lineages of intestinal epithelial cells based on their functions: enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells
, and Paneth cells .