The phaJ gene encodes for (R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase which is involved in fatty acid metabolism (Figure 3(a)).
coli strain which utilizes two substrate-specific enoyl-CoA hydratases, R-hydratase (PhaJ) and S-hydratase (FadB).
Anderson, "DFT/PM3 study of the enoyl-CoA hydratase catalyzed reaction," Nukleonika, vol.
Petsko, "Structural mechanism of enoyl-CoA hydratase: three atoms from a single water are added in either an E1cb stepwise or concerted fashion," Biochemistry, vol.
isocitrate dehydrogenase and enoyl-coA hydratase were highly expressed in maslinic acid-treated Raji cells.
Indeed, maslinic acid increases energy metabolism in cells by up-regulating mitochondria isocitrate dehydrogenase and enoyl-CoA hydratase. This supported the suggestion by Reyes et al.
The second step is carried out by an enoyl-CoA hydratase
, and the enzyme involved in the third step is an L 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase using NAD as cofactor for the reaction, which is reduced to NADH transferring electrons to complex 1 of the respiratory chain.
In particular, the expression level of spots 26, 7, 19, 9, 6, 8 and 21, which were identified as Cathepsin H precursor, Retinal dehydrogenase 1, Enoyl-CoA hydratase
, Elongation factor Tu, Ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase, T-complex protein 1 subunit beta and ATP synthase D chain was 9.4, 8.7, 4.1, 3.0, 2.9, 2.9 and 2.6 fold higher in differentiating than in corresponding undifferentiated BSC.
Both sequences were found to align with the enoyl-CoA hydratase
(ECH) family of enzymes which typically catalyze the hydration of double bonded intermediates during the beta-oxidation of fatty acids.
The 3 enzymes involved are long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase
(LCEH), long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), and long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (LCTH).
Two enzymes are essential: a hydratase such as D-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase
, for example, the hydratase obtained from Aeromonas caviae, and a .beta.-oxidation enzyme system.
LCHAD activity is associated with the [alpha]-subunit, as is the activity of longchain enoyl-CoA hydratase
. The [beta]-subunit contains longchain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase activity.