enkephalin


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enkephalin

 [en-kef´ah-lin]
either of two pentapeptides, composed of four identical amino acids and either leucine or methionine, referred to as leu-enkephalin and met-enkephalin. The enkephalins function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators at many locations in the brain and spinal cord and are involved with pain perception, movement, mood, behavior, and neuroendocrine regulation; they are also found in nerve plexuses and exocrine glands of the gastrointestinal tract.

enkephalin

/en·keph·a·lin/ (en-kef´ah-lin) either of two pentapeptides (leu-enkephalin and met-enkephalin) occurring in the brain and spinal cord and also in the gastrointestinal tract; they have potent opiate-like effects and probably serve as neurotransmitters.

enkephalin

(ĕn-kĕf′ə-lĭn)
n.
Either of two closely related pentapeptides having opiate qualities and occurring in the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the body.

enkephalin

[enkef′əlin]
Etymology: Gk, enkepalos, brain, in, within
one of two pain-relieving pentapeptides produced in the body, located in the pituitary gland, brain, and GI tract. Axon terminals that release enkephalins are concentrated in the posterior horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord, in the central part of the thalamus, and in the amygdala of the limbic system of the cerebrum. Enkephalins function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators and inhibit neurotransmitters in the pathway for pain perception, thereby reducing the emotional as well as the physical impact of pain. Methionine-enkephalin and isoleucine-enkephalin are each composed of five amino acids, four of which are identical in both compounds. These two neuropeptides can depress neurons throughout the central nervous system. Although it is not known exactly how these neuropeptides function, the enkephalins are natural pain killers and may be involved, with other neuropeptides, in the development of psychopathological behavior in some cases. Compare endorphin.

enkephalin

pentapeptide binding to specific brain cell receptor sites, including opiate receptors

enkephalin

(enkef´əlin),
n one of two pain-relieving pentapeptides produced in the body.

enkephalin

either of two naturally occurring pentapeptides (methionine enkephalin and leucine enkephalin) isolated from the brain, which have potent opiate-like effects and probably serve as neurotransmitters. They are classified as endorphins.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chronic blockade of D2 but not D1 dopamine receptors facilitates behavioural responses to endogenous enkephalins, protected by kelatorphan, administered in the accumbens in rats.
The main groups of opioid peptides, enkephalins, dynorphins and beta-endorphin, are derived from proenkephalin, prodynorphin and proopiomelanocortin, respectively (20).
An in vitro study of the inhibitory action of methionine enkephalin on ovarian maturation in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.
These substances are called endorphins, enkephalins and substance P.
Using a sensitive technique called mass spectrometry, the Florida researchers determined that once the hybrid enkephalin molecule was trapped in the brain, other brain enzymes stripped off its disguise, freeing the drug to perform its pain-relieving role.
10] Acupressure and acupuncture in fact are being utilized and proven useful in pain and addictive management [10-12] At a biological level such as acupressure and acupuncture, cupping therapy works by stimulating or activating (1) the immune system; (2) enkephalin secretion; (3) neurotransmitter release; (4) vasoconstriction and dilatation; and (5) the gates for pain in the central nervous system which interpret pain sensation.
Repeated ethanol administration induces short- and long-term changes in enkephalin and dynorphin tissue concentrations in rat brain.
Results from a Phase II study with the furthest developed drug candidate, NP2 Enkephalin for the treatment of severe cancer pain, is expected around year end.
The most advanced project in the NTDDS-based product portfolio is NP2 Enkephalin for the treatment of severe cancer pain, Phase II results for which are expected around the end of the year.
Immunohistochemical studies of the neurochemical markers, CGRP, enkephalin, galanin, gamma-MSH, NPY, PHI, proctolin, PTH, somatostatin.
Over time, intermittent sugar access causes decreased enkephalin mRNA expression within the nucleus accumbens (Spangler et al.