endotoxin


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Related to endotoxin: endotoxin shock

endotoxin

 [en´do-tok″sin]
a heat-stable toxin associated with the outer membranes of certain gram-negative bacteria, including Brucella, Neisseria, and Vibrio species. Endotoxins are not secreted but are released only when the cells are disrupted; they are less potent and less specific than the exotoxins; and they do not form toxoids. In large quantities they produce hemorrhagic shock and severe diarrhea; smaller amounts cause fever, altered resistance to bacterial infection, leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, and numerous other biologic effects.
Results of endotoxin release. From Copstead, 1995.

en·do·tox·in

(en-dō-tok'sin),
1. A bacterial toxin not freely liberated into the surrounding medium, in contrast to exotoxin.
2. The complex phospholipid-polysaccharide macromolecules that form an integral part of the outer membrane of a variety of relatively avirulent as well as virulent strains of gram-negative bacteria. The toxins are relatively heat stable, are less potent than most exotoxins, are less specific, and do not form toxoids; on injection, they may cause a state of shock and, in smaller doses, fever and leukopenia followed by leukocytosis; they have the capacity of eliciting the Shwartzman and the Sanarelli-Shwartzman phenomena.
Synonym(s): intracellular toxin

endotoxin

(ĕn′dō-tŏk′sən)
n.
A toxin produced by certain bacteria and released upon destruction of the bacterial cell.

en′do·tox′ic adj.

endotoxin

Bacterial endotoxin, lipid A Microbiology A heat-stable lipopolysaccharide on the outer coat of gram-negative bacteria–eg, those causing cholera, meningitis, pneumonia, plague, whooping cough, et al Clinical Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, fever, chills, hemorrhagic shock, dec resistance to infection

en·do·tox·in

(en'dō-tok'sin)
1. A bacterial toxin not freely liberated into the surrounding medium, in contrast to exotoxin.
2. The complex phospholipid-polysaccharide macromolecules that form an integral part of the cell wall of strains of gram-negative bacteria. The toxins may cause a state of shock accompanied by severe diarrhea, and, in smaller doses, fever and leukopenia followed by leukocytosis.
Synonym(s): intracellular toxin.

endotoxin

A poisonous lipopolysaccharide formed in the cell wall of a GRAM-NEGATIVE bacterium by means of which the organism causes its damage to the host. Compare exotoxin.

endotoxin

a poison that is produced by and remains inside a living CELL. It is only released upon disintegration of the organism. An example is the delta-endotoxin produced by the BACTERIUM Bacillus thuringiensis, and active against certain insect larvae. GENES for such toxins have been introduced into plants by GENETIC ENGINEERING with a view to conferring insect resistance upon them.

en·do·tox·in

(en'dō-tok'sin)
1. A bacterial toxin not freely liberated into the surrounding medium.
2. The complex phospholipid-polysaccharide macromolecules that form an integral part of the cell wall of strains of gram-negative bacteria; may cause shock, severe diarrhea, and fever.
Synonym(s): intracellular toxin.
References in periodicals archive ?
They suggested that cotton wicks used in e-cigarettes may be responsible for the contamination because both endotoxin and glucan are known to be present in cotton fibers.
Endotoxin. Endotoxin was measured using an endotoxin-specific kinetic turbidimetric in a Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay.
Pregnancies in the model group had higher mean IL-1, 4, 6, 10 and TNF-alpha in the fetal plasma and amniotic fluid samples that were retrieved at day 115 (before endotoxin administration) and at day 120 (during preterm delivery).
Another method for detection of endotoxin pyrogens is the LAL assay.
(1) Eight percent of arthroplasties performed in the United States undergo revisions due to aseptic loosening, (2) most often due to the presence of endotoxins. (3) Osteolysis (dissolution or degeneration of bone) is generally observed in the region of loosening.
LPS is known to be the most toxic constituent of bacterial endotoxin, having no structural homologue among multicellular organisms.
The EndoPur offers dialysis clinics an endotoxin barrier with the smallest pore size on the market.
All animals were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC) group, endotoxin tolerance (ET) group, and endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) group.
The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical informativity of the neutrophil oxidative response level ("Response") during the Endotoxin Activity Assay as a new biomarker defining the indications and effectiveness of intensive care in cardiac surgical patients with septic complications.
The intestines contain large amounts of Gram-negative bacteria [34], which contain complex lipopolysaccharides (LPS) termed endotoxin within the outer cell wall [34, 35].
Changes in pulmonary function due to endotoxin exposure showed decreased force vital capacity, flow rate and peak expiratory flow parameters significantly different (pless than 0.05, pless than 0.001).