Throughout the subepithelial zone and proper mucous plate (PMP) there was an increased vessel formation (microvasculature), most vessels had a dilated lumen, thickened wall with distended nuclei of endotheliocytes
, some of which had sludge phenomenon of red blood cells.
Age-dependent telomere-shortening is repressed by phosphorylated alphatocopherol together with cellular longevity and intracellular oxidative-stress reduction in human brain microvascular endotheliocytes
It is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and impaired paracrine interaction between activated stellate hepatocytes and sinusoidal endotheliocytes
, sinusoidal remodeling and capillarization, as well as development of the collateral microcirculation .
While in the circulation, MCPs stimulate blood phagocytes (granulocytes and monocytes) and endotheliocytes
(E) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by activating Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4).
Structurally the intimal layer of CCA, as in the other carotid vessels (ICA and ECA), showed a very thin pattern and appeared formed by endotheliocytes
and internal elastic lamina (Figs.