are peptides that exert various biological effects, including vasoconstriction and stimulation of cell proliferation (22).
: molecular biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, physiology, and pathophysiology," Pharmacological Reviews, vol.
Defining the role of endothelins
in renal pathophysiology on the basis of selective and unselective endothelin
receptor antagonist studies.
are a family of vasoconstrictor peptides that have a potent activity in cerebral blood vessels in particular and which, despite having been originally isolated from endothelial cells, are produced by neurons, glial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and monocytes [17, 18].
," New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
These results suggest an important role of the endothelins
in the pathological mechanisms leading to preterm birth in the presence of intra-amniotic infection.
: pathophysiology and treatment implications in chronic heart failure.
The vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) , a 21-amino acid peptide, is the most abundant member of the family of endothelins
including ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3.
are potent vasoconstrictors.
(3) Repeated attacks of vasospasm lead to the release of damaging endothelial products, such as factor VIII and von Willebrand's factor (which hinder fibrinolysis) and endothelins
(which are vasoconstrictors).
Mahon et al., "Endothelins
: regulators of extracellular matrix protein production in diabetes," Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol.
The lungs are the primary source of circulating endothelins
, including ET-1.