Among the proposed theories, diminished blood supply to the inner ear secondary to microvascular endothelial dysfunction
has gained increasing acceptance.
Pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction
is complex and it can develop through various mechanisms.
Some studies have shown stiffening of the arteries and endothelial dysfunction
in patients with COPD.
The link between ED and CAD is found in endothelial dysfunction
, a precursor to atherosclerosis.
is one contributing factor that leads to increased blood pressure and cardiovascular disease.
Due to endothelial dysfunction
and peripheral artery disease, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hypertension and coronary disease are responsible for the development of ED.
is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis, elevated level of low density lipoprotein oxidation, cytokine elaboration, up regulation of adhesion molecules, increased cell permeability, platelet aggregation as well as proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscles.
Although it is known that epithelial dysfunction can bring a plethora of chronic illnesses, it remains unclear exactly how salt-induced endothelial dysfunction
may affect the brain in the long run.
, the initial lesion of atherosclerosis [8, 9], is an early marker of CVD frequently observed both in CKD [10, 11] and DM patients .
After 12 weeks in the experimental animals, the index of intraosseous microcirculation was measured in the trochanteric region of the femur and the coefficient of endothelial dysfunction
(CED) was calculated on the basis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) data.
This special issue brings together original research and review articles focusing on the contribution of innate and adaptive immune response in the endothelial dysfunction
and in the progression of atherosclerosis in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs).
There are numerous factors that are associated with the advancement of nephropathy in patients having Type-2 diabetes (T2D) including age, poor glycemic control, hypertension, and smoking.10 Of them, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction
seems to have a basic contributing factor in the progression of DN.11 Recent observations suggest that uric acid is an element which may lead to inflammation and may play a pivotal part in endothelial dysfunction
and results in the development of DN.