Environmentally derived informational clues may shift the individual's mental status if these are perceived as stressing after being "introjected" in the psychological state through the mesocortical-limbic system (i.e., ventral tegmental area, cerebral cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus) and by the hypothalamic endorphinergic
& Takeshige et al., analgesia induced by needle insertion to auricular acupoints can be blocked by the opiate antagonist naloxone [49, 50], suggesting that a descending pain inhibitory system can be associated with the endorphinergic
pathway in the brain and spinal cord.
Endorphinergic neurons originating in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus move towards other hypothalamic nuclei of the septum and the accumbens nucleus (important centers mediating the positive reinforcement and reward effects of many addictive drugs) and towards periaqueductal grey matter, amygdala and hypothalamus (Wise & Bozarth, 1982).
This preference, genetically determined and related to the the endorphinergic system, seems to be confirmed with respect to the sensitivity of the encephalinergic system to alcohol (Li, Li & Froehlic, 1992).
mechanisms in food, salt and water intake: an overview.
mechanisms in food, salt and water intake: an overview," Appetite, vol.
Genetic variables could include serotonergic genes (serotonergic receptors [5HT2a]; serotonin transporter 5HTlPR); endorphinergic
genes (mu OPRM1 gene; proenkephalin [PENK, PENK polymorphic 3' UTR dinucleotide (CA) repeats]; GABergic gene (GABRB3), and dopaminergic genes (ANKKI Taq A; DRD2 C957T, DRD4 7R, COMT Val/met substation; MAO-A uVNTR; and SLC6A3 9 or 10R).
Need of supporting and recognition has been related to endorphinergic
, oxytocin and vasopressin systems.
dysregulation is related to the coping style.
These studies hint that activity generated mood changes are mediated, at least in part, through endorphinergic
modulation of acceptability of putative reinforcers.
It is also known that deficiencies in endorphinergic
pathways influence one's immune response, which induces abnormalities in a number of aproimetric parameters (Li et al.