Then Retting and Buer reported that SMAD5 is required for endochondral bone formation
(Retting et al., 2009).
Einhorn  declared that the presence of committed and uncommitted undifferentiated mesenchymal cells in the periosteum contributes to the process of fracture healing by recapitulation of the embryogenic intramembranous and endochondral bone formation
Caption: Figure 3: Safranin-O (25x) demonstrates cartilage cap with endochondral bone formation
underlying the dermis.
Ferrara, "VEGF couples hypertrophic cartilage remodeling, ossification and angiogenesis during endochondral bone formation
," Nature Medicine, vol.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulate mesenchymal cells and increase bone collagen synthesis to promote endochondral bone formation
. Among the known BMPs, rhBMP-2 is the most effective osteogenic factor for inducing early formation of trabecular woven bone as well as lamellar bone remodeling .
Osteophyte formation requires mineralization deposition and is generally linked to endochondral bone formation
, which first leads to the differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes and proteoglycan-rich matrix deposition prior to bone build up.
Many theories such as reactivation of residual embryonal cells, traumatic initiation, or benign neoplastic disease have been advocated.[sup] The generally accepted pathogenesis of the submesothelial foci of cartilaginous bodies is that they are formed by metaplasia of pluripotential cells in the synovial membrane.[sup] These nodules can ossify by endochondral bone formation
and attach to the synovium by a thin vascular pedicle.
Angiogenesis, the process of generating new blood vessels from pre-existing blood vessels, is involved in endochondral bone formation
and bone fracture repair.
This reduces intramembranous ossification, endochondral bone formation
, and matrix synthesis.
Immunohistochemical observations of cellular differentiation and proliferation in endochondral bone formation
from grafted periosteum: Expression and localization of BMP-2 and-4 in the grafted periosteum.
The role of bone morphogenetic proteins in endochondral bone formation
. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2005;16:279-85.
Recombinant Vgr-1/BMP-6expressing tumors induce fibrosis and endochondral bone formation