The role of bone morphogenetic proteins in endochondral bone formation
41) MSCs have been shown to be the primary source for endochondral bone formation
, (42) and as such are ideal for future bone repair constructs.
The InQu Bone Graft Extender offers several advantages over existing synthetic bone graft substitutes including its unique ability to support the normal process of endochondral bone formation
In cases of clinical failure, the pieces of residual DBM often are surrounded by fibrous tissue, but because DBM induces endochondral bone formation
, areas of cartilage or bone often are associated with the DBM spicules or in the adjacent tissue (Figure 3).
Fracture healing involves primary recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of both osteoprogenitors (osteoblast progenitors), for intramembranous ossification, and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, for endochondral bone formation
(Barnes et al.
An in vitra study found that lead inhibits parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and transforming growth factor-[beta]1, proteins that decrease the rate of maturation of chondrocytes in endochondral bone formation (Zuscik et al.
The proposed mechanism is as follows: Besides its effects on endochondral bone formation, PTHrP also acts on bone remodeling in adult organisms.
Endochondral bone formation
was notably abnormal (Figure 2).