LEEP denotes loop excision of the endocervix
. With expectant management, most people (57%) recover with no procedure, but more expectantly managed people require invasive surgical procedures than immediately treated people (19.8% vs 4.5%).
Papillary immature metaplasia could be derived from a more proximal portion of the SCJ toward the endocervix
, compared to LSIL, since PIM is frequently found in the more proximal portion of the cervix toward the endocervix
clinically, (1) almost always contains mucin-secreting cells, and generally expresses CK7 and CK17, whereas LSILs are almost entirely composed of mature squamous epithelia, with polarity relatively well preserved, demonstrate prominent koilocytotic changes, rarely contain mucin-secreting epithelia, and rarely express CK7 or CK17.
Table 1--Presence of microorganisms in the female genital tract according to tubal status Tubo-peritoneal infertility Control (normal tubes) Fallopian Fallopian Pacient Tube Endocervix
Pacient Tube Endocervix
1 (-) CT + MG 1 NG NG 2 (-) MH 2 NG + UU UU 3 (-) MH 3 UU UU 4 (-) NG 4 NG NG + TV + MH 5 (-) NG 5 NG + CT (-) 6 (-) NG 6 NG + UU (-) 7 (-) TV 7 MH (-) 8 (-) UU 8 UU (-) 9 (-) NG 10 (-) UU 11 (-) NG + UU 12 (-) MH MH, Mycoplasma hominis; UU, Ureaplasma urealyticum; MG, Mycoplasma genitalium; NG, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; CT, Chlamydia trachomatis; TV, Trichomona vaginalis.
(24) However, rare cases originating in the upper endocervix
and lower uterine segment may show an immunostaining pattern that is overlapping with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium; in particular, such tumors may show ER and PR positivity, patchy p16 staining, and test negative for HPV.
However, it is noted that swabs taken from the endocervix
and patients having mucopurulent discharge were subjected to diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.
Each of them underwent a complete gynecologic examination, including HPV DNA cervical screening and Pap smear sampling from the ectocervix and endocervix
using a plastic Ayres's spatula and cytobrush.
While other types of cancer, such as that of the endocervix
and endometrium, can be detected by Pap smear, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of these cancers are far lower than for squamous cell carcinoma, the most common type of cervical cancer.
Witkin and associates found that 40% of the cohort had HPV at the introitus and endocervix
, 29% had cervical HPV only, and the rest had no HPV detected.
Needle electrodes are sometimes used for cylindrical excision of endocervix
and ball electrodes to control bleeding.