fractional shortening, which measures circumferential function, is strictly influenced by left ventricle geometry and radial thickening.
After the infancy period, it is advised to implant endocardial
A multivariate analysis of cardiac growth in human embryos: endocardial
cushions and ventricular myocardium.
LVEF was calculated by assessment of the volumes of the endocardial
contours in diastole and systole.
pressure is a key parameter for assessing cardiac function and has important clinical implications for patients with heart failure.
cushion defect in a patient with Crouzon syndrome carrying a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-2 gene.
contours were traced in the apical 4- and 2-chamber images in the end-diastole and end-systole.
However, all four cardiac valves and the endocardial
surfaces can be involved4.Valvular abnormalities are often clinically silent, without significant valvular dysfunction.
substrate mapping of the RV and RVOT was performed (NavX System; St.
The electrical mesh has the characteristics of realistic heart compartment, which consists of endocardial
, midmyocardial, and epicardial cells following the ten Tusscher et al.
surface of the tunica intima of the blood vessels and the endocardial
Pathophysiologically, J (Osborn) waves are thought to be caused by differences in action potential characteristics between the epicardial and endocardial
layers of the heart.