endemic typhus


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Related to endemic typhus: scrub typhus, epidemic typhus

mu·rine ty·phus

a milder form of epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia typhi and transmitted to humans by rat or mouse fleas.

endemic typhus

murine typhus

An acute rickettsial infection characterised by fever, headache and rash, similar to (but milder than) epidemic typhus, caused by Rickettsia typhi.  MT occurs sporadically worldwide; it is more prevalent in congested rat-infested urban areas. In the US, it occurs in California, Texas and Hawaii.

Clinical findings
Rash, headache, fever, chills, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, cough; nearly half of patients develop neurological signs (e.g.,  confusion, stupor, seizures, incoordination).

DiffDx
Measles, rubella, Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Vector
R typhi is transmitted to humans by rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Reservoir Rats, mice and other rodents.

Management
Tetracycline, chloramphenical.

mu·rine ty·phus

(myūr-ēn' tī'fŭs)
A milder form of epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia typhi and transmitted to humans by fleas from rats or mice.
Synonym(s): endemic typhus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Endothelial injury is the key element in the pathogenic and pathophysiology of endemic typhus. R.
typhi infection in different species of wild mammals in different parts of the world which can include rodents (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvergicus), opossums (Gender Dydelphis) and dogs as well as consider endemic typhus as a disease imported by travelers and refugees (19).
The concurrence and presence of mammals, vectors, and humans may contribute to maintaining transmission of endemic typhus in a reduced area, with the possibility to cause outbreaks (7,8).
Because housing and cultural conditions are similar in all countries of Latin America, endemic typhus probably is transmitted in the same way: by coexistence with domestic animals and close contact with wild reservoirs.
Experimental Rocky Mountain spotted fever and endemic typhus treated with prontosil or sulfapyridine.