endemic goiter


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

goiter

 [goi´ter]
enlargement of the thyroid gland, causing a swelling in the front part of the neck; called also struma. adj., adj goit´rous. If there is evidence of pressure against the throat, or the possibility of a malignancy, the goiter may be removed surgically. Simple endemic goiter is usually caused by lack of iodine in the diet. In graves' disease, goiter is accompanied by excessive thyroid hormones in the blood and symptoms of hyperthyroidism.
aberrant goiter goiter of a supernumerary thyroid gland.
adenomatous goiter that caused by adenoma or multiple colloid nodules of the thyroid gland.
Basedow goiter a colloid goiter that has become hyperfunctioning after administration of iodine.
colloid goiter one that is large and soft and has distended spaces filled with colloid.
cystic goiter one with cysts formed by mucoid or colloid degeneration.
diffuse toxic goiter exophthalmic goiter.
endemic goiter goiter occurring widely in a geographic region where the food or water is deficient in iodine. Treatment consists of iodine replacement; although this will not cure the condition, it can stop it from enlarging, and iodine administered in advance will prevent development of goiter.
exophthalmic goiter any type accompanied by exophthalmos.
fibrous goiter goiter in which the thyroid capsule and stroma are hyperplastic.
follicular goiter parenchymatous goiter.
intrathoracic goiter one with part of the enlarged gland in the thoracic cavity.
iodide goiter that occurring in reaction to iodides at high concentrations, due to inhibition of iodide organification.
multinodular goiter one with circumscribed nodules within the gland.
nontoxic goiter that occurring sporadically and not associated with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.
parenchymatous goiter one with increase in follicles and proliferation of epithelium.
perivascular goiter one that surrounds a large blood vessel.
retrovascular goiter one with processes behind a large blood vessel.
substernal goiter one whose lower part lies beneath the sternum.
suffocative goiter one that causes dyspnea due to pressure.
toxic multinodular goiter hyperthyroidism arising in a multinodular goiter, usually of long standing.
vascular goiter one due chiefly to dilatation of the blood vessels of the thyroid gland.

en·dem·ic goi·ter

goiter, usually of simple type, prevalent in certain regions where dietary intake of iodine is suboptimal.

endemic goiter

an enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by the intake of inadequate amounts of dietary iodine. Iodine deprivation leads to diminished production and secretion of thyroid hormone by the gland. The pituitary gland, operating on a negative feedback system, senses the deficiency and secretes increased amounts of thyroid-stimulating hormone, causing hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the thyroid gland. The goiter may grow during the winter months and shrink during the summer months when the person eats more iodine-containing fresh vegetables. Initially the goiter is diffuse; later it becomes multinodular. Endemic goiter occurs occasionally in adolescents at puberty and widely in population groups in geographic areas in which limited amounts of iodine are present in soil, water, and food. The use of iodized salt is a prophylactic treatment. Desiccated thyroid given orally may prevent further growth of adult goiters and may reduce the size of diffuse goiters. A large goiter may cause dysphagia, dyspnea, tracheal deviation, and cosmetic problems. Also called colloid nodular goiter.

endemic goiter

Goiter development in certain geographic localities, esp. where the iodine content in food and water is deficient. Goiters are more prevalent in fresh water and lake areas and less so on the seacoast, owing to the lack of iodine in fresh water. The treatment consists of iodine taken orally or in iodized salt.
See also: goiter
References in periodicals archive ?
Table 2: Pregnancy outcome in 48 women with endemic goiter.
Endemic goiter due to iodine deficiency is reported in many parts of the Pakistan including Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad and Peshawar15,16 .
Eventually, iodized salt became accepted as a therapeutic product by the FDA and, because of this, endemic goiter has become a nearly conquered disease in America.
Supplemental L-T4, when added to the T3 and T4 secretion by the autonomous nodules in the endemic goiter, may cause thyrotoxicosis.
Towards the eradication of endemic goiter, cretinism and iodine deficiency.
Hormonal and nutritional status: critical conditions for endemic goiter epidemiology?
Cyanide is a highly toxic element and has been implicated as a causative agent in certain diseases such as Leber's optical atrophy, tobacco amblyopia, Tropical Ataxic Neuropathy [TAN], endemic goiter and cretinism syndrome [12].
During the worldwide campaign to eliminate endemic goiter and associated cretinism, Stanbury et al.
In endemic goiter areas, incidence of retrosternal extension of goiter varies from 3 to 20% with respect to thyroidectomy patients.
In 1994, 27 years after the original publication by Suzuki, et al, (9) Konno, et al (11) stated: "Kelp-induced endemic goiter was reported to occur in the coastal regions of Hokkaido nearly 30 years ago.
14,16,19,20,54) Demographic surveys of Japan and Iceland revealed that both countries have a relatively high intake of I, and low incidences of simple endemic goiter and breast cancer, whereas in Mexico and Thailand, just the reverse is observed -- a high incidence of both endemic goiter and breast can cer.
The recommended levels for daily I intake were chosen with the goal of preventing and correcting endemic goiter and hypothyroidism, assuming that the only role of I in health maintenance is in its essentiality for the synthesis of T4 and T3.