The oncospheres are filtered from the circulation and encyst
in muscular tissue.
It burrows the intestinal wall and encysts
in muscular tissues.
They then encyst
in any type of nucleated cell and can lie dormant within tissues for the life of the host.
The free-swimming cercariae escapes from the first intermediate host, and penetrate in the body of the compatible second intermediate host (aquatic invertebrates or aquatic vertebrates), where becomes a metacercaria that may, or may not, encyst
The larvae can encyst
in various tissues, causing abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, and a tender abdomen .
The ova develop into larvae, penetrate the intestinal wall, disseminate throughout the body via the vascular system, and encyst
in tissue as cysticerci.
Echinostomatid digeneans are parasites of reptiles, birds and mammals; however, cercariae may encyst
on or in anurans (Prudhoe and Bray, 1982).
Trichinosis requires two hosts in its life cycle: female worms produce larvae that encyst
in muscle of the first host and the new, second host becomes infected when muscle is eaten.
Sporocysts and two generations of rediae develop producing cercariae that eventually encyst
in fishes or amphibians (second intermediate hosts).
After release from the molluscan host, cercariae of Glypthelmins quieta and Megalodiscus temperatus penetrate the skin of anurans and encyst
beneath the epidennis.
This larva must attach and encyst
on a host fish where it transforms into a juvenile mussel, which is released to complete its life cycle as a free-living organism.
1994), cyanobacteria to produce akinetes (Whitton 1987), algae to produce spores, cysts, or gametes that fuse into diapausing zygotes (Fryxell 1983, Blanco 1995, Burkholder and Glasgow 1995), and amoebae and ciliates to encyst
(Johnson and Evans 1939, Hashimoto 1962, Neff and Neff 1969, Grimes 1973, Corliss and Esser 1974, Walker et al.