(33.) Gitlin L, Barchet W, Gilfillan S, Cella M, Beutler B, Flavell RA, et al., Essential role of mda-5 in type-I IFN responses to polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid and encephalomyocarditis
For the RT-PCR screening of CNS samples for the presence of pestiviruses (Flaviviridae) and swine picornaviruses (Picornaviridae), including teschovirus, enterovirus, sapelovirus, Seneca Valley virus, pasivirus, kobuvirus and encephalomyocarditis
, we used virus-specific primer pairs as well as the outer and inner primer pairs targeting the RdRp or the capsid regions of PoAstV-3 (Figure 1; online Technical Appendix Tables 1, 2).
IRES sequences were first discovered in the poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis
virus RNA genomes [11, 27], but a growing number of cellular IRES-containing transcripts are being identified with the potential to be translated via cap-independent mechanisms .
(14) Like other typical IFNs, these cytokines have been also demonstrated to play a key role in the negative regulation of cytopathic viruses such as encephalomyocarditis
virus (EMCV), (15) vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), (15) cytomegalovirus (CMV), (16) influenza A virus (IAV), (17) respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), (18) hepatitis C virus (HCV), (18) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2).
The NLRP3 inflammasome is well characterized and many viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A virus, HIV, encephalomyocarditis
virus, and RSV are known to promote IL-1[beta] production by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome [13, 58-60].
In collaboration with Ding, the lab of Olivier Voinnet at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich also reported in an accompanying paper the detection of viral siRNAs in cultured mouse embryonic stem cells infected by the Encephalomyocarditis
Dengue virus 2 (DEN-2), Encephalomyocarditis
murine virus (EMCV) and Vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve (VACV-WR) were kindly donated by Dr.
In particular, Sindbis virus, dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, encephalomyocarditis
virus [1, 2], respiratory syncytial virus [9, 10], influenza virus, Sendai virus [11, 12], and hepatitis C virus (HCV) [13-15] were shown to induce IFNLs in vitro and in vivo.
Kimata et al., "Oxidative damage to neurons caused by the induction of microglial NADPH oxidase in encephalomyocarditis
virus infection," Neuroscience Letters, vol.
Role of MAPK in the regulation of double-stranded RNA- and encephalomyocarditis
virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by macrophages.
Further, they also recently examined the roles of IDO1 in immune regulation in encephalomyocarditis
virus (EMCV) infection by using IDO1 K.O.
The genus Cardiovirus also contains a second species called encephalomyocarditis