The two most frequent changes were white matter signal abnormalities (67.5%, 54/80) and encephalatrophy
(52.5%, 42/80), and 21 (26.3%) of 80 patients had both of the two changes.
The first contemporary brain structure study of schizophrenia was conducted in 1976 by Johnstone and colleagues  who assessed 17 individuals with schizophrenia using CT and found enlarged lateral ventricles and cortical encephalatrophy. Additionally, they found that the enlargement of the lateral ventricles was associated with cognitive impairment but unrelated to antipsychotic treatment.
They reported that approximately 30% of individuals with schizophrenia had encephalatrophy, which was identified as reduced volume of the brain, widened sulus, and enlarged third and lateral ventricles.
Specifically, the five drugs include Qing Wen Granule, used to treat viral colds; Ru Xiao Kang Capsule, used to treat hyperplasia of mammary glands, breast swelling and mastadenoma; Stomach and Intestine Purifying Capsule, used to treat chronic gastritis, enteritis and ulcers; Juteng Capsule, used to treat hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cerebral arteriosclerosis, encephalatrophy
and strokes; and Ding An Kang Granule, used to treat insomnia and irritability.