In bipartite begomoviruses, the DNA-A component encodes proteins associated with viral DNA replication, encapsidation
, vector transmission and viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs), whereas DNA-B encodes proteins involved in intercellular and intracellular movement.
 The region that codes for HBeAg overlaps pregenomic RNA, which requires to be folded into a secondary structure known as the encapsidation
Song et al., "Limitations of encapsidation
of recombinant self-complementary adeno-associated viral genomes in different serotype capsids and their quantitation," Human Gene Therapy Methods, vol.
They are dependent on the helper begomovirus for their replication and encapsidation
. Begomovirus-associated alphasatellites are autonomously replicating satellite-like molecules.
CP is involved in insect transmission, encapsidation
, intra- and intercellular movement.
Both DNA-A and DNA-B perform different vital roles like viral DNA replication, encapsidation
and transcription by DNA-A, while two movement proteins (BV1 and BC1) for translocation of virus by DNA-B (Levy and Tzfira, 2010).
Previous studies demonstrated that IFN inhibits HBV replication at multiple steps of its life cycle, by deaminating and degrading the viral transcription template covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) through apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3A [3-5], silencing cccDNA through epigenetic regulation by the STAT complex [6, 7], downregulating viral mRNA stability through antiviral zinc finger proteins [8, 9], inhibiting viral pregenomic RNA encapsidation
via myxoma resistance protein 1 [10, 11], and reducing virion secretion by Tetherin .
The hpRNA construct was developed targeting CP and Hc-Pro genes to interfere with the encapsidation
, vector mediated virus transmission, and RNA silencing suppressor simultaneously.
An adenine-rich region (approximately 200 bp with 45-52% adenine content) is also present, which is hypothesised to be a stuffer sequence that serves to fulfill the size constrain imposed by helper virus-mediated movement or encapsidation
(Shahid et al., 2014; Zhou, 2013).
CP is involved in aphid transmission systemic movement and the encapsidation
of the viral RNA .
Little is known about the process of encapsidation
into the mature virion, but incorporation of the nucleocapsid of these viruses is thought to involve nonstructural proteins .