They rely on the helper virus for movement, encapsidation
and vector transmission.
CP is involved in insect transmission, encapsidation
, intra- and intercellular movement.
Both DNA-A and DNA-B perform different vital roles like viral DNA replication, encapsidation
and transcription by DNA-A, while two movement proteins (BV1 and BC1) for translocation of virus by DNA-B (Levy and Tzfira, 2010).
An adenine-rich region (approximately 200 bp with 45-52% adenine content) is also present, which is hypothesised to be a stuffer sequence that serves to fulfill the size constrain imposed by helper virus-mediated movement or encapsidation
(Shahid et al.
6) On the other hand, the presence of thymine in nt 1858, forming a base pair with the adenine in nt 1896, makes the encapsidation
signal of the pre-genomic RNA stronger.
The terminal events that result in genome encapsidation
, viral assembly and maturation of infectious virus occur in the most superficial differentiated cells of squamous epithelium.
14,15) This may be due to the presence of one or more mutations in one of the following areas: the precore/core, the basic core promoter, the Kozak sequence and/or the bulge of the RNA encapsidation
signal (personal communication, Professor Michael Kew).
Mutations in the precore region of hepatitis B virus serve to enhance the stability of the secondary structure of the pregenome encapsidation
Thus, the coat protein of AMV has two functions in infection: encapsidation
of RNA and initiation of infection (van Vloten-Doting and Jaspars, 1972, 1977).
The method includes contacting a host cell with a recombinant poliovirus nucleic acid which lacks the nucleotide sequence encoding at least a portion of a protein necessary for encapsidation
and an expression vector comprising a nucleic acid which encodes at least a portion of one protein necessary for encapsidation
under conditions appropriate for introduction of the recombinant poliovirus nucleic acid and the expression vector into the host cell and obtaining a yield of encapsidated viruses which substantially comprises an encapsidated recombinant poliovirus nucleic acid.
In the present system, frequency dependence probably appeared as a consequence of differences in replication efficiency, virus encapsidation
rates and/or any kind of interaction between both strains rather than solely as a consequence of interactions with external factors.
DNA A encode proteins that are responsible for encapsidation
of viral genome controlling of gene expression (Sanderfoot and Lazarowitz 1995) the insect transmission and DNA replication (Laufs et al.