These findings, which reflect today's reality in a developing country setting and may foretell future trends in industrialized countries, demonstrate the importance of tailoring empirical treatment
regimens to the patients' demographic profile.
For adults with this type of cough, monotherapy with antihistamines as an empirical treatment
is recommended by American and European guidelines, including the American College of Chest Physicians' guidelines, which recommend first-generation antihistamines for adults with chronic cough.
for viral encephalitis with intravenous acyclovir should be carried out in all suspected cases even before accurate diagnosis can be made.
We believe that a change in the empirical treatment
is necessary, mainly in patients with sepsis during hospitalization, which can decrease the global mortality of patients infected by ESBL-KP.
We commonly encountered multidrug resistance of clinical significance that calls for continuous surveillance of antibiograms to guide empirical treatment
. We advocate the inclusion of ciprofloxacin in the treatment regimen of H.
The common antibiotics prescribed as empirical treatment
for CAP patients on outpatient basis includeAmoxicillin in 92, Ciprofloxacin in 20, Ofloxacin in 4, Amoxiclav in 20, Azithromycin in 20, Cefixime in 10, Levofloxacin in 8, Clarithromycin in 6 and others in 8 patients.
The use was considered appropriate in the empirical treatment
of severe nosocomial infections, based on the microbiological profile of the institution; after therapeutic failure of the first-choice antibiotics; on the specific treatment of infections where it was the only therapeutic alternative or more cost-effective and on the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant microorganisms [18-22].
pneumoniae (28) is only intermediate, and a significant number of bacterial pneumonias complicating influenza may not respond to empirical treatment
. This fact is well supported by evidence from mouse models; more modern "respiratory" fluoroquinolones such as gatifloxacin demonstrate good results (29) against S.
This may present a diagnostic dilemma, and choosing empirical treatment
is difficult as all these conditions merit different and sometimes potentially toxic treatment.
But antibiotics showed superiority to placebo in patients with nasal discharge or cough that did not resolve within 10 days, so radiographs may be unnecessary and empirical treatment
may be warranted in this group.
Further there have been significant changes in the antimicrobial resistance patterns among Extended Spectrum [beta]-lactamase (ESBL) producing pathogens makes empirical treatment
of these infections difficult.
presented a greater adequacy when two or more drugs were used (33 out of 54 versus 43 out of 71; p = 0.70).