With admirable skills, she demonstrates region by region - even department by department - that while virtually all of France contributed to the emigration the most likely areas to send emigrants (permanent and temporary to both Quebec and Acardie) are associated with the emerging Atlantic economy and especially the Northwest, for which she records 38.6 percent, followed by Centerwest, 19 percent; Southwest, 10.9 percent; East, 9 percent; Paris region, 8.5 percent.
She concludes from these numbers and the east-west emigration axis she draws from Rouen to Toulouse, that the "international connection represented by the Atlantic economy superseded the cultural backwardness generally attributed to southern France as a whole." Without validating the emigrants' self-identified place of origin, family urban-rural migration patterns, and just how rural even a town or city might still be, she concludes that the emigrants were urban rather than rural: only one-third of her sample come from village or countryside, with the remaining two-thirds of her sample coming from towns, of which, in turn, approximately two-thirds were from cities with populations in excess of ten thousand.
She finds no correlation between global emigration and the annual course of grain prices or overall economic curves of boom or bust.
While the campaign for the Jackson-Vanik amendment certainly brought greater attention to the cause of Soviet Jewish emigration, its legacy at different historical moments was far more complicated than many people today remember.
During the initial dip in emigration following the amendment's passage in 1975, groups largely interpreted the events as they wanted to--as supporters saw Jackson's efforts as a valiant effort rather than a failure.
Approved by Congress in 1974 and signed by President Gerald Ford in January 1975, the Jackson-Vanik amendment to the 1974 Trade Act denied "normal trade relations, programs of credits, credit guarantees, or investment guarantees," commercial agreements, and Most Favored Nation status (MFN) to all nonmarket economy countries that prohibited emigration, taxed emigrants, or punished those applying to emigrate.
Rather, as Paula Stern points out, it was Senator Jackson himself who pushed forward the idea of linking the Soviet Jewish emigration issue to US-Soviet trade.
Most Italians began to feel the effects of the recession a bit later than other Southern Europeans, but the rise in Itay's emigration rate seems to have been the sharpest in the last couple of years.
When Mario Monti hinted at it in his inaugural speech after being appointed prime minister in 2011, he actually encouraged emigration, praising the"mobility" of young Italians in the"European and global job market."
In approaching human rights issues in the initial CSCE negotiations, the West attempted to define specific areas in which behavior would be monitored.(22) Realizing that the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations would not agree to a broad statement on freedom of emigration, the Western nations focused on family reunification.
However, it was the Bern Experts Meeting on Human Contacts, held in April and May 1986, which represented a significant and thorough evaluation of emigration matters.(28)
Jewish emigration has been the major issue that the United States employs to evaluate Soviet performance on family reunification issues.(32) Table 1 contains the figures on Jewish emigration along with events in the CSCE process and arms control.