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em·e·sis grav·i·da·rum(em'ĕ-sis grav'i-dā'rŭm)
emesis(em'e-sis) [Gr. emein, to vomit]
The relationship of emesis to meals, administered drugs, or other environmental stimuli should be noted. The presence of any aggravating factors, e.g., pain, anxiety, nauseating medications, pregnancy, neurological conditions (e.g., head trauma, hemorrhage, or tumors); the type of foods eaten; and noxious environmental stimuli; as well as the type of vomiting, amount, color, and characteristics of the emesis are documented. Assistance is provided with oral hygiene, and antiemetics are administered, if prescribed, to control vomiting. If vomiting leaves the patient weak, dysphagic, or with an impaired sensorium, or if the patient is comatose or has an impaired cough mechanism and is receiving enteral feedings, safety measures are instituted to prevent aspiration of vomitus into the lungs; these include placing the patient in a side-lying position with the head lowered or in a high-Fowler’s position after feeding and having suction and emergency tracheostomy equipment readily available.