Changes in the uterus tissues and the rate at which gilts attain sexual maturity are related to the embryotrophic
potential of the uterus (Bartol et al., 1993, 1999).
effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and hemoglobin on in vitro porcine embryos development.
The embryotrophic properties of some batches of human serum have been correlated with high concentration of myoinositol (12).
Purification of embryotrophic factor from commercial bovine serum albumin and its identification as citrate.
A correlation of the outcome of clinical in vitro fertilization with the inositol content and embryotrophic properties of human serum.
It has been hypothesised that tubal ectopic pregnancy is caused by a combination of retention of the embryo within the fallopian tube due to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal environment allowing early implantation to occur.3 Tubal epithelial cells produce growth factors, cytokines, and other embryotrophic
factors of unknown identities to support embryo development in vitro.
However, the bovine embryo co-culture system using somatic cells may include the secretion of embryotrophic factors and inactivation of embryotoxic agents such as free radicals, heavy metals and other substances (Flood and Shirtey, 1991; Gardner et al., 1994).
(1998) who reported that antioxidant supplement inhibited the LPO of cells in vitro and improved the development of bovine embryos, possibly by releasing embryotrophic factors and removing or alleviating embryotoxic substances during culture.
Also, it has been already known that co-culture cells may secrete nutrients and embryotrophic
factors, or cell-specific glycoproteins (Hwu et al., 1998).