Previous case series have proven the embryopathy
rate to be as high as 5 to 7% to those exposed to warfarin in the first trimester .
Stromland, "Ocular motility in thalidomide embryopathy
," Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, vol.
It is also worth noting that while Coumadin has been successfully used in some pregnant women with mechanical heart valves, its use is associated with significant complications such has embryopathy
, subchorionic hemorrhage, and fetal bleeding .
Loeken, "Polymorphic susceptibility to the molecular causes of neural tube defects during diabetic embryopathy
," Diabetes, vol.
EGT ameliorates the response to acetylcholine in the arteries of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and reduces diabetic embryopathy
in pregnant rats with diabetes, probably through the modulation of hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress .
Long-term DM leads to macrovascular complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, and microvascular complications (diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, embryopathy
, and retinopathy) which decrease the quality of life of individuals with diabetes.
It was reported that hypodontia was more common in children with thalidomide embryopathy
(7.7%) than in normal children (0.4%) [65, 66].
Moreover, the addition of prostaglandin E2 to those embryo cultures leads to the normal development and closure of the neural tube, suggesting a protective role of both inositol and arachidonic acid pathway against CNS defects associated with diabetic embryopathy
A short history of thalidomide embryopathy
. Teratology [internet].
There are well known facts that even for asymptomatic forms of 5-15% of children in the next 1-2 years and the following are registered at a later date: the disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) (60 to 100%), the diseases of the respiratory tract (from 15.4 to 69.2%), liver disorders (15.4%), and other forms of embryopathy
and fetopathy [11-13].
The accumulation of tissue AGEs together with enhanced oxidative stress has shown an important role in the progression of aging and diabetic complications, including retinopathy, neuropathy, atherosclarosis, nephropathy, embryopathy
and delayed healing of wounds [29-33].
Another crucial issue raised by researchers with experience in epidemiological research of congenital malformations, both in Brazil and in other Latin American countries, was that support for the evidence that embryopathy
caused by the ZIKV is responsible for the cases of microcephaly is weak.