Based on Wilson's Principles of Teratology (Finnel, 1992), embryolethality
(i.e., cumulative mortality), growth retardation (i.e., unhatched zebrafish embryos), and functional deficit (i.e., pericardial and yolk sac edemas), as seen in the ZET results of the present study, are all manifestations of developmental toxicity.
In the females from the exposed group, embryolethality
was observed at daily doses of 4-100 mg/kg b.w., but early resorptions per litter were significantly higher in the 4 mg/kg b.w.
Assessment of Pregnancy Outcome and Embryolethality in the Different Groups.
TABLE 2: Pregnancy outcome and embryolethality in the different groups.
Developmental toxicity was observed in three animals: teratogenicity (mice), embryolethality (rats), and fetal growth restriction (rabbits).
The drug caused developmental toxicity (embryolethality, impaired growth, and birth defects) in animals during all portions of pregnancy.
In the pertinent literature it was noted that the chlorophyllin causes embryolethality
and changes in intra-uterine development, as well as presents a potential clastogenic effect; however some studies show the antigenotoxic potential both in vitro and in vivo, and these processes are intimately linked, as they come from damage to the DNA.
can result in different alterations in embryo-fetal development, due to their effect on embryonary implantation, resulting in abortive (embryolethality
) or embryofoetoxicity effects (Almeida and Lemonica 2000; Lyra et al.
The preimplantation period of pregnancy is considered to be an "all-ornone" period, i.e., the period during which maternal exposure to exogenous agents may cause either embryolethality
or a normal fetus at delivery (Giavini et al., 1990).