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1. the customary amount and kind of food and drink taken by a person from day to day.
2. more narrowly, a regimen of food intake planned to meet specific requirements of the individual, including or excluding certain foods. See also nutrition.
acid-ash diet a special diet prescribed to increase the acidity of the urine so that alkaline salts will remain in solution. The diet may be given to aid in the elimination of fluid in certain kinds of edema, in the treatment of some types of urinary tract infection, and to inhibit the formation of alkaline urinary calculi. Meat, fish, eggs, and cereals are emphasized, with little fruit and vegetables and no milk or cheese.
alkali-ash diet a therapeutic diet prescribed to increase the alkalinity of the urine and dissolve uric acid and cystine urinary calculi. This type of diet changes the urinary pH so that certain salts are kept in solution and excreted in the urine. Emphasis is placed on fruits, vegetables, and milk. Meat, eggs, bread, and cereals are restricted.
bland diet one that is free from any irritating or stimulating foods.
DASH diet (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products; low in saturated and total fats; low in cholesterol; and high in fiber. Research studies support the hypothesis that this diet reduces blood pressure and may play a role in prevention of high blood pressure.
elemental diet one consisting of a well-balanced, residue-free mixture of all essential and nonessential amino acids combined with simple sugars, electrolytes, trace elements, and vitamins.
elimination diet one for diagnosis of food allergy, based on omission of foods that might cause symptoms in the patient.
Feingold diet a controversial diet for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, which excludes artificial colorings and flavorings, preservatives, and salicylates. The national institutes of health consensus statement, Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, notes that exclusion diets like this are an area warranting additional research.
gluten-free diet see gluten-free diet.
high calorie diet one that furnishes more calories than needed to maintain weight, often more than 3500–4000 calories per day.
high fat diet one that furnishes more than 35 per cent of its total calories from fats; see also ketogenic diet.
high fiber diet one high in dietary fiber (typically more than 24 g daily), which decreases bowel transit time and relieves constipation.
high protein diet one containing large amounts of protein, consisting largely of meats, fish, milk, legumes, and nuts.
ketogenic diet one that produces ketones or acetones, or mild acidosis, such as one that is low in calories with insufficient carbohydrate and protein; it is occasionally used in the treatment of epilepsy. See also low fat diet.
liquid diet see liquid diet.
low calorie diet one containing fewer calories than needed to maintain weight, e.g., less than 1200 calories per day for an adult.
low fat diet one containing limited amounts of fat.
low fiber diet low residue diet.
low purine diet one for mitigation of gout, omitting meat, fowl, and fish and substituting milk, eggs, cheese, and vegetable protein.
low residue diet one with a minimum of cellulose and fiber and restriction of connective tissue found in certain cuts of meat. It is prescribed for irritations of the intestinal tract, after surgery of the large intestine, in partial intestinal obstruction, or when limited bowel movements are desirable, as in colostomy patients. Called also low fiber diet and minimal residue diet.
low tyramine diet a special diet required by patients receiving MAO inhibitors. Foods containing tyramine include aged cheeses, red wine, beer, cream, chocolate, and yeast.
minimal residue diet low residue diet.
protein-sparing diet one consisting only of liquid protein or liquid mixtures of proteins, vitamins, and minerals, containing no more than 600 calories; it is designed to maintain a favorable nitrogen balance. Such diets have been used in weight loss programs, but are used only rarely now, usually only in inpatient settings.
purine-free diet low purine diet.
vegetarian diet see vegetarian diet.
A basic diet composed of oligopeptides and amino acids, disaccharides or partially hydrolysed starch, and minimal fat; elemental diets provide proton (hydrogen ion) neutralisation sufficient to maintain gastric pH above pH 3.5.
In patients with severe burns, only 3% of those receiving an elemental had major upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage compared to 30% of those fed with a regular diet; commercial elemental diets include Precision, Travasorb and Vivonex.
elemental dietNutrition A basic diet composed of oligopeptides and amino acids, disaccharides or partially hydrolyzed starch, and minimal fat; EDs provide proton–hydrogen ion neutralization sufficient to maintain gastric pH above pH 3.5. See Diet.
the customary amount and kind of food and drink taken by an animal from day to day; more narrowly, a diet planned to meet specific requirements of the animal, including or excluding certain foods. See also winter diet.
diets of low alkalinity which are fed to cows to prevent milk fever. The diet in the 4 weeks preceding parturition, which is ordinarily highly alkaline, is supplemented with calcium chloride, and aluminum and magnesium sulfates, to reduce this alkalinity.
one that is free from any irritating or stimulating foods.
calcium homeostatic diet
a diet aimed at maintaining normal blood levels of calcium in recently calved cows.
formulated to aid in the dissolution of struvite uroliths. Usually provides a low intake of protein, restricts phosphorus and magnesium, and acidifies the urine. Additional salt may also be included. These have been used successfully in dogs and cats.
see nutritional deficiency disease.
drought feeding diet
see drought feeding.
contains nutrients as small molecular weight compounds, i.e. proteins as amino acids or peptides, carbohydrates as oligosaccharides or monosaccharides, and fats as medium-chain triglycerides. Used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disease. Called also monomeric diet.
one for diagnosing food allergy, based on the sequential omission of foods which might cause the clinical signs in the patient.
may vary in composition; generally, they are formulated to provide lower energy intake and increased digestibility.
one without wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, or oats or related products.
high-calorie diet, high-energy diet
one that furnishes more calories than needed for maintenance; used to increase body condition, in recovery from illness and for maintenance under stressful conditions.
one relatively high in dietary fiber; in dogs and cats, used in the management of large and small bowel diarrhea, diabetes mellitus, constipation and obesity.
one containing large amounts of protein; used in the management of dogs and cats recovering from illness.
one prepared in the home kitchen, in contrast with commercially prepared pet foods.
one formulated to avoid suspected allergens; usually used in the management of allergic skin or bowel disease.
a diet limited to liquids or to foods that can be changed to a liquid state.
one containing fewer calories than needed to maintain weight; normally used in management of obesity in dogs and cats.
one containing limited amounts of fat; used in the management of pancreatic disease, bowel disease, and obesity in dogs and cats.
see low-residue diet (below).
low purine diet
in dogs and cats, generally a low-meat diet.
one with a minimum of cellulose and fiber and restriction of connective tissue found in certain cuts of meat. It is prescribed for irritations of the intestinal tract, after surgery of the large intestine, in partial intestinal obstruction, or when limited bowel movements are desirable. Called also low-fiber diet.
low vitamin A diet
one containing low levels of vitamin A; in dog and cat diets, this would mean little or no organ meats. The only probable indication for such a diet is in the treatment of hypervitaminosis A.
lower urinary tract disease diet
one that promotes acidification of the urine and containing restricted magnesium and phosphorus, and sometimes increased salt.
see elemental diet (above).
one containing restricted amounts of phosphorus; used in the management of chronic renal disease.
meal replacement diets; fed to animals with almost normal gastrointestinal function. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates are present in high molecular weight forms.
used in management of congestive heart failure and systemic hypertension in dogs and cats.
emanating from or pertaining to elements.
see elemental diet.