In addition to being a component of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin, iron is a cofactor for cytochrome oxidase, which is essential for mitochondrial energy production through its role in the electron-transport chain
. Thus, iron deficiency might aggravate ischemic heart disease by 2 different mechanisms.
As a cofactor in the electron-transport chain
, [CoQ.sub.10] is required for the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's main storage form of energy.
All members of this gene group regulate the electron-transport chain
, a series of biochemical reactions that generates energy in cells.
Comment: In addition to its role in hemoglobin synthesis, iron is a cofactor for some of the enzymes of the electron-transport chain
, which are essential for myocardial energy production.
Riboflavin (in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD]) and coenzyme [Q.sub.10] are cofactors in the electron-transport chain
, a biochemical cascade that culminates in ATP synthesis.
Two such nutrients are riboflavin (a component of flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD], a coenzyme involved in the electron-transport chain
) and magnesium (which is essential for the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate [ATP] from adenosine diphosphate [ADP]).