electron transport chain


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e·lec·tron trans·port chain

(ĕ-lek'tron trans'pōrt chān)
The final common pathway in aerobic (oxidative) metabolism. Oxygen is a cofactor.

electron transport chain

The stage of cellular respiration in which the most adenosine triphosphate is generated. In this biochemical reaction, electrons are passed along the cytochromes of a cell or mitochondrial membrane and are ultimately accepted by oxygen, producing water. Hydrogen ions (protons) are transported across the membrane. The source of the protons and electrons is primarily nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which is recycled during the reaction.
Synonym: cytochrome transport system
See also: chain
References in periodicals archive ?
vannamei transcripts Electron transport chain complex I NADH dehydrogenase subunit F L.
Other evidence of the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD patients is the fact that genes involved in the electron transport chain are downregulated (decreased Complex I, III, IV, and V).
The response was in the form of the increment of fluorescence intensity, caused by the inhibition of Cu towards the process of photosynthetic electron transport chain [21,28].
As the photosynthetic process is turned on and electrons start flowing from PSII acceptors to downstream components of the electron transport chain the RCIIs reopen.
Electron transport, also sometimes called oxidative phosphorylation (as distinguished from photophosphorylation), is the process by which electrons are passed from the oxidation of Krebs cycle organic acid to the electron acceptor NAD and subsequently to flavin mononucleotide (FMN), coenzyme Q, cytochrome b, cytochrome c, cytochrome a, and cytochrome [a.sub.3] In this chain reaction, energy is transferred from the electron transport chain during the coupling of [P.sub.i], ADP to form ATP.
Similarly, studies of Complex I alone can never predict how ATP is generated through the electron transport chain. Finally, biological systems are robust.
Mitochondria are the main source of energy production in the form of ATP via the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain in mammalian cells.
"The electron transport chain is involved in mitochondrial energy production," says Johnson.
As reported by Marcillat et al., (1989) mitochondrial damage is a major component of adriamycin cardiotoxicity, and rival oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms for inactivation of the electron transport chain. In the bovine heart mitochondrial preparations the authors demonstrated that a Dox dose of 25-50 [mu] moles represents the oxidative damage and as they cited this appears to be localized between the NADH dehydrogenase flavin and iron-sulphur center N-1, SDH and cytochrome (oxidase activities) where these two enzymatic activities were shown by Dox by the above authors.
CoQ10 and CoQ10H2 are important elements of the electron transport chain and may be useful biomarkers of oxidative stress, thus of primary importance in clinical diagnosis of diseases such as atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease.
Coenzyme [Q.sub.10] (Co[Q.sub.10]), the predominant ubiquinone species in humans, functions as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and as an intracellular antioxidant (1).
Riboflavin is the key component for two coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), essential in the electron transport chain and final oxidation of macronutrients to energy.

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