resistance

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resistance

 [re-zis´tans]
1. opposition, or counteracting force, as opposition of a conductor to passage of electricity or other energy or substance.
2. the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment; see also immunity.
3. in psychology or psychiatry, conscious or unconscious defenses against change, preventing repressed material from coming into awareness; they can take such forms as forgetfulness, evasions, embarrassment, mental blocks, denial, anger, superficial talk, intellectualization, or intensification of symptoms. It occurs because the blocked association or understanding would be too threatening to face at this point in the therapy; identification of what point the resistance comes at can be an important indicator of the patient's unconscious patterns.
airway resistance the opposition of the tissues of the air passages to air flow: the mouth-to-alveoli pressure difference divided by the rate of air flow. Symbol RA or RAW.
androgen resistance resistance of target organs to the action of androgens, resulting in any of a spectrum of defects from a normal male phenotype in which men have normal genitalia but infertility to complete androgen resistance in which the individual has a female phenotype. Complete androgen resistance is an extreme form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which the individual is phenotypically female but is of XY chromosomal sex; there may be rudimentary uterus and tubes, but the gonads are typically testes, which may be abdominal or inguinal in position. Called also testicular feminization and testicular feminization syndrome. Incomplete androgen resistance is any of various forms less than the complete type, manifested by a male phenotype with various degrees of ambiguous genitalia such as hypospadias and a small vaginal pouch, a hooded phallus, or a bifid scrotum that may or may not contain gonads.
drug resistance the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
insulin resistance see insulin resistance.
multidrug resistance (multiple drug resistance) a phenomenon seen in some malignant cell lines: cells that have developed natural resistance to a single cytotoxic compound are also resistant to structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents. Called also cross-resistance.
peripheral resistance resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles.
pulmonary vascular resistance the vascular resistance of the pulmonary circulation; the difference between the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and the left atrial filling pressure divided by the cardiac output. Called also total pulmonary vascular resistance.
total peripheral resistance the vascular resistance of the systemic circulation: the difference between the mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure divided by the cardiac output.
total pulmonary resistance (total pulmonary vascular resistance) pulmonary vascular resistance.
vascular resistance the opposition to blood flow in a vascular bed; the pressure drop across the bed divided by the blood flow, conventionally expressed in peripheral resistance units. Symbol R or R.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

re·sis·tance

(rē-zis'tăns),
1. A force exerted in opposition to an active force.
2. The opposition in a conductor to the passage of a current of electricity, whereby there is a loss of energy and a production of heat; specifically, the potential difference in volts across the conductor per ampere of current flow; unit: ohm. Compare: impedance (1).
3. The opposition to flow of a fluid through one or more passageways (for example, blood flow, respiratory gases in the tracheobronchial tree), analogous to (2); units are usually those of pressure difference per unit flow. Compare: impedance (2).
4. In psychoanalysis, one's unconscious defense against bringing repressed thoughts to consciousness.
5. The ability of red blood cells to resist hemolysis and to preserve their shape under varying degrees of osmotic pressure in the blood plasma.
6. The natural or acquired ability of an organism to maintain its immunity to or to oppose the effects of an antagonistic agent, for example, a toxin, drug, or pathogenic microorganism.
7. In endocrinology, a defective target tissue response to a hormone. Synonym(s): hormone resistance
[L. re-sisto, to stand back, withstand]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

resistance

(rĭ-zĭs′təns)
n.
1. The act or an instance of resisting or the capacity to resist.
2. Psychology A process in which the ego opposes the conscious recall of anxiety-producing experiences.
3. Biology
a. Ability (of an organism, tissue, or cell) to withstand a destructive agent or condition such as a chemical compound, a disease agent, or an environmental stressor: antibiotic resistance; resistance to fungal diseases; drought resistance.
b. Lack of normal response to a biologically active compound such as a hormone: insulin resistance.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

resistance

Infectious disease The ability of a host to resist a pathogen; able to grow in the presence of a particular antibiotic. See Antibiotic resistance, Drug resistance, HIV drug resistance, Intermediate resistance Medtalk The ability to function in a normal or near-normal fashion, in the face of a toxic environment. See Activated protein C resistance, Airway resistance, Cross-resistance, Hormone resistance, Insulin resistance, Multidrug resistance, Nasal airway resistance, Radioresistance, Variable resistance, Vasopressin resistance Oncology Failure of a cancer to regress after RT or chemotherapy Psychiatry Conscious or unconscious psychologic defense against recall of repressed&ndash. ;.
unconscious thoughts
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

re·sis·tance

(rĕ-zis'tăns)
1. A passive force exerted in opposition to another active force.
2. The opposition in a conductor to the passage of a current of electricity, whereby energy is lost and heat produced; specifically, the potential difference in volts across the conductor per ampere of current flow; unit: ohm.
Compare: impedance (1)
3. The opposition to flow of a fluid through one or more passageways; units are usually those of pressure difference per unit flow.
Compare: impedance (2)
4. psychoanalysis A person's unconscious defense against bringing repressed thoughts to consciousness.
5. The ability of red blood cells to resist hemolysis and to preserve their shape under varying degrees of osmotic pressure in the blood plasma.
6. The natural or acquired ability of an organism to maintain its immunity to or to resist the effects of an antagonistic agent (e.g., pathogenic microorganism, toxin, drug).
[L. re-sisto, to stand back, withstand]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

resistance

any inherited characteristic of an organism that lessens the effect of an adverse environmental factor such as a pathogen or parasite, a biocide (e.g. herbicide, insecticide, antibiotic) or a natural climatic extreme such as drought or high salinity.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

re·sis·tance

(rĕ-zis'tăns)
1. Force exerted in opposition to an active force.
2. Opposition to flow of a fluid through one or more passageways.
3. Ability of an organism to maintain its immunity to or to oppose effects of an antagonistic agent.
[L. re-sisto, to stand back, withstand]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Silver conductive paint was deposited at the beginning and end of the tracks to stabilize the signal and to reduce signal noise during the electrical resistance measurements.
The reverse correlation coefficient of the dependence between the index of the fabric filling and electrical resistance R in case the stitch density of the contour was 4.5 stitches/mm was from 0.9 to 0.95.
As a final investigation on the strainsensing properties of smart bricks doped with stainless steel microfibers, Figure 8 depicts the time histories of measured strain and of corresponding normalized variation of electrical resistance, during an electromechanical test on samples with plate electrodes.
Caption: FIGURE 7: Electrical resistance versus tensile strain plot of patterned Ag electrode films.
The received results showed that when nichrome wires were coated, there was a significant reduction in the electrical resistance. The greatest reduction in resistance was observed when the wires were covered by clean bone glue.
The thickness of the sample decreases under the load, and the contact area between the fibers and electrode increases, which in turn reduces the overall electrical resistance. At 0wt% of MWCNTs (Figure 3(a)), the resistance increases in each trial when the load is removed, which may be attributed to the hysteresis and porosity changes, whereas at 1 and 2wt% MWCNTs (Figures 3(b) and 3(c)), the porosity of the fiber film is likely to be reduced because of the conductive nanoscale inclusions.
However, LFP has high electrical resistance, resulting in high contact resistance* with regard to plain aluminum foils used as a collector.
Electrical resistance, which is the opposition offered by a substance or body to the passage of electrical current, is important in utility lines due to charges potentially being conducted from the wires onto the pole where line personnel could come into contact with them (Stewart 1936).
the relationship between current and voltage and the origins of electrical resistance); the role of geometry, size, and microstructure in determining resistance at the nanoscale; techniques for probing the electrical properties of structures and devices at the nanoscale; heating and electromigration in nanowires; and the emerging field of molecular electronics.
Using the company's patented Sterling contact technology, the PowerMod HP offers low electrical resistance, provides a minimum of 500 mating cycles, and is rated for circuit interruption (true hotplug).
The electrical resistance is 1 x [10.sup.6] to 1 x [10.sup.9] [ohm] with a staticdecay rate of <0.2 s or 2.5 x [10.sup.4] to 1 x [10.sup.6] [ohm] with decay of <0.01 s.
With electrical resistance of tip to 1012 ohm, these foils are tailored to the requirements of manufacturers of home electronics.

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