potential

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potential

 [po-ten´shal]
existing and ready for action, but not active.
electric tension or pressure.
action potential see action potential.
after-potential the period following termination of the spike potential.
auditory evoked potential in electroencephalography, changes in waves in response to sound; see also brainstem auditory evoked potential.
brainstem auditory evoked potential that portion of the auditory evoked potential that comes from the brainstem; abnormalities can be analyzed to evaluate comas, to support diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, and to detect early posterior fossa tumors.
cognitive event--related p's a diagnostic study that uses electroencephalographic equipment and a computer dedicated to analyze brain wave P300; this wave is a measure of the brain's active cognitive processing of information. The patient is instructed to complete a task that requires attention and information processing. A recording of brain wave activity as well as information related to cognitive function is produced.
diastolic potential the transmembrane potential of the cell during electrical diastole.
maximal diastolic potential the most negative level attained during the cardiac cycle by the cell membrane of a fiber that does not have a constant resting potential, occurring at the end of phase 3 of the action potential. In pacemaker cells this is a point of hyperpolarization.
membrane potential the electric potential that exists on the two sides of a membrane or across the wall of a cell.
resting potential (resting membrane potential) the difference in potential across the membrane of a cell when it is at rest, i.e., fully repolarized. In cardiac physiology this occurs during electrical diastole in pacemaker cells and continuously in nonpacemaker cells.
spike potential the initial, very large change in potential of the membrane of an excitable cell during excitation.
threshold potential the transmembrane potential that must be achieved before a membrane channel can open; it differs among the various cardiac membrane channels.
potential (omaha) in the omaha system, a problem modifier on the third level of the problem classification scheme, defined as the presence of health patterns, behaviors, or risk factors that may preclude optimal health even though specific signs and symptoms are absent.

po·ten·tial

(pō-tent'shăl), Avoid the redundant use of this adjective with a noun whose sense includes the notion of possibility, as potential danger and potential hazard.
1. Capable of doing or being, although not yet in course of doing or being; possible, but not actual.
2. A state of tension in an electric source enabling it to do work under suitable conditions; in relation to electricity, potential is analogous to the temperature in relation to heat.
[L. potentia, power, potency]

potential

Vox populi
1. The difference in electric charge between 2 points in a circuit, expressed in volts or mV. See Action potential, Evoked potential, Inhibitory post-synaptic potential, Late potential, Membrane potential, Spike potential, Ventricular late potential, Zeta potential.
2. The inherent capacity to occur. See Biological hazard potential, Biopotential, Biotic potential, Chemical potential, Health potential, Maximum life-span potential.

po·ten·tial

(pŏ-ten'shăl)
1. Capable of doing or being, although not yet doing or being; possible, but not actual.
2. A state of tension in an electric source enabling it to do work under suitable conditions; in relation to electricity, potential is analogous to the temperature in relation to heat.
[L. potentia, power, potency]

potential 

The amount of energy required to transfer a unit of positive charge from one point in an electrical field to another (potential difference). It is typically measured in volts.
action potential The electric current generated in an axon of a nerve cell in response to a stimulus. The stimulus must be above a certain threshold value to have an effect. The sodium pump (or sodium/potassium pump) which transports most sodium ions outside the cell and potassium ions inside the cell ceases to function and the sodium ions rush in making the interior of the axon a positive voltage with respect to the outside. The voltage changes from about −70 mV to +40 mV and then falls rapidly back to the resting membrane potential as the sodium pump regains its effect. The whole process takes less than one millisecond and its amplitude is always the same (all or none law) for a given axon, whatever the magnitude of the stimulus. The action potential is followed by an inexcitable period called the refractory period, which usually lasts one or two milliseconds. The action potential travels as a wave in both directions from the point of stimulation and the speed is faster in myelinated than in unmyelinated nerve fibres. Syn. nerve impulse. See adaptation; Schwann cell; neuron; receptor potential; resting membrane potential; synapse.
dark potential of the eye See resting potential of the eye.
early receptor potential (ERP) This is an early rapid response that can be detected when the retina is stimulated with an intense flash of light, approximately 106 times brighter than that required to elicit the ERG. It is completed within 1.5 ms and is followed by the a-wave of the ERG. It is primarily, in man, a cone-generated potential. See electroretinogram.
graded potential A depolarization or a hyperpolarization (e.g. in the photoreceptors) generated by a neuron in response to a stimulus. The amplitude of the response varies with the intensity of the stimulus. If the neuron becomes depolarized to threshold an action potential is triggered in its axon.
membrane potential See resting membrane potential.
oscillatory p's . (OP) Subwaves of low amplitude but high frequency (70-140 Hz) superimposed on the b-wave of the electroretinogram. The amplitude of these oscillatory responses is usually enhanced by a filtering technique. These potentials are presumed to originate from the vicinity of the inner plexiform layer of the retina (probably the amacrine cells) and may reflect disturbances of that part of the retina.
receptor potential Difference in potential occurring in a receptor in response to a stimulus. This is a graded type of response with an amplitude proportional to the intensity of the stimulus (graded potential). The photoreceptors and the bipolar cells produce a receptor potential but, surprisingly, it is a hyperpolarization, i.e. the inside of the membrane becomes more negative with respect to the outside. The ganglion cells respond with action potentials. See action potential; rhodopsin.
resting membrane potential Difference in direct current potential between the inside and outside of a living cell. The inside of the cell is usually about −70 mV compared to the outside, but this value depends on the quantity of potassium (mainly), sodium and chloride ions on both sides of the membrane, and the permeability to these ions of the membrane itself. Syn. membrane potential; transmembrane potential. See depolarization; hyperpolarization; action potential; tonus.
resting potential of the eye A direct current potential which exists between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, the cornea being positive relative to the back of the eye. It is of the order of several mV in humans. This potential is used in recording the electrooculogram. Syn. dark potential of the eye; standing potential of the eye. See electrooculogram.
standing potential of the eye See resting potential of the eye.
standing potential See electrooculogram.
transmembrane potential See resting membrane potential.
visual evoked cortical potential (VECP) An electrical potential measured at the level of the occipital cortex in response to a light stimulation. Recording requires repetition of the stimulus and a computer synchronized with the onset of that stimulus, to average out the background noise produced by the spontaneous brain potentials (e.g. alpha, beta, delta, theta waves). This potential has clinical application and is used to objectively measure refraction, visual acuity, amblyopia, binocular anomalies and help in the diagnosis of some demyelinating diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis), etc. Many abbreviations are also used, although they are not strictly correct. They are EP (evoked potential), VEP (visually evoked potential), VER (visual evoked response), and pVER (indicating that this potential is pattern-elicited). See objective accommodation; artifact; electrodiagnostic procedures.

po·ten·tial

(pŏ-ten'shăl)
Capable of doing or being, although not yet in course of doing or being; possible, but not actual.
[L. potentia, power, potency]
References in periodicals archive ?
Then the (62) of overall system equations can be written when considering the active control electric potential as follows:
The electric potentials are defined at the vertices of the voxels, and the electric field is defined by set of discrete vectors on the voxel edges; the magnitude of the electric field is defined at the voxel centre by averaging the three sets of four parallel edge electric field components.
In the 2-probe arrangement, the temperature difference and the electric potential are commonly measured on the probes which are in direct contact with the ends of the sample (8).
In a region devoid of charges, the electric potential satisfies Laplace's equation:
The measurements of the difference of electric potential were carried out throughout profiles of10 m of longitude separated to a distance of 0.50 m among them, being obtained a total of441 registrations.
Heat energy is directly converted into electricity based on electric potential difference caused by temperature differences at both sides of thermoelectric elements.
The specialist adviser was impressed with the company's ability to make the most of piezoelectricity, which utilises the ability of ceramic materials to generate electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress.
Moreover, a reduction of frost thickness of 14% was observed for electric potential equal to 15 kV whereas an increment of the thickness of approximately 20% was observed when electric potential was set to - 15 kV.
Specifically, Laplace's equation is solved in n dimensions to obtain the electric potential, and hence the electric field.
EME signals from the rock sample were detected as the electric potential change appearing between two electrodes A-A.
A numerical thermoelectric model of the electric calcinator was developed with application of generalized physical properties of bulk layer of Donetsk anthracite, using which for the first time data were obtained on distribution of electric potential and density of current, temperature, and heat flow density in two- and three-stage calcinations of anthracite.

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