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Traditional models of the self-concept, and in particular, ego identity (Erikson, 1968; Marcia, 1980), have tended to ignore the potential impact that experiences with racism have on the lives of members of the affected groups.
For example, Park (2004) reported that South Korean high school students' total scores on ego identity are lower than those of South Korean middle school and college students.
For adults, mirroring is provided unconsciously by authorities, celebrities, mentors, spiritual leaders, neighbors, relatives--but most importantly those who trigger one's archetypal complexes--to establish ego identity.
Participants' identity status was measured using the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, a 24-item instrument, developed by Adams, Shea, and Fitch (1979).
A revision of the extended version of the objective measures of ego identity status: an identity instrument for use with late adolescents.
Instead, the results were in agreement with those presented by Waterman, Geary, and Waterman (1974), who performed a longitudinal study on the ego identity development of first-year college students through their senior year.
The Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (Bennion & Adams, 1986) was used to measure ego identity status in both ideological domains (occupation, politics, religion, and philosophical lifestyle) and interpersonal domains (friendship, dating, sex roles, and recreation).
Ego identity status in cross-cultural context: A replication study.
Studies on gender differences based upon Eriksonian based identity development instruments like Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (OMEIS) and Marcia interview classification have produced inconsistent results.
To assess the unique effects of each ego identity status on overall differentiation level and the various components of differentiation, simultaneous multiple regression analyses were conducted.
Formation of ego identity is a lifelong process that leads to a sense of continuity with one's past, of competence and meaning in the present, and confidence in one's future direction (Erikson, 1959).
Individuals having a secure attachment style were less likely to have a depressive attributional style and were more likely to have achieved ego identity status, to rate their primary caregivers as higher in independence-encouragement, and to rate their families as higher in expressiveness, cohesiveness, active-recreational orientation, and intellectual-cultural orientation than were individuals having a dismissive, fearful, or preoccupied attachment style.