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Indeed, antimuscarinic agents, which are currently the gold standard treatment, may also exert some of their beneficial effects through afferent as well as efferent pathways. Many other potential therapies are also currently being investigated.
The somatic efferent pathways leave the central nervous system via spinal nerves and innervate various skeletal muscles.
Therefore, an excess of feedback could generate tinnitus via a complex interaction between afferent and efferent pathways, a circumstance that is not specific to otospongiosis.
Although this article focuses on pathways between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex, lesser efferent pathways have been described.
Spontaneous tremor has always been difficult to reproduce in experimental animals and since it has only regularly been achieved by lesions of the midbrain ventral tegmental area involving cerebellar efferent pathways in addition to the nigrostriatal tract, the relationship of such experimental tremor to the resting tremor of PD has been unclear (53).