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the method of feeding a baby with milk directly from the mother's breast. Also written breast feeding and breast-feeding.

There is strong research support that breast milk is the most appropriate nourishment for most infants. The benefits of breastfeeding are physical, emotional, and economic. Infants who are breastfed have lower rates of hospital admissions, ear infections, diarrhea, rashes, allergies, and other health problems than babies who receive infant formulas. Breastfeeding also benefits the mother by stimulating release of oxytocin, which causes involution of the uterus following pregnancy. It can also be a very satisfying experience for the mother-baby pair and encourage bonding. Nevertheless, breastfeeding is a personal decision to be made by the mother with the support of health care providers. Mothers should be encouraged and supported to breastfeed, but they should not be made to feel guilty or inadequate if circumstances interfere with their ability to do so. Certain harmful agents and substances, such as the human immunodeficiency virus, are transmitted through breast milk.

Breast milk is easily digested and of unique benefit to the baby, for whom it is perfectly formulated. It is sterile and contains nutrients needed by the infant in ideal proportions. It also contains immunoglobulins. Breast milk is the standard against which all other infant formulas should be compared. The national institute of allergy and infectious diseases notes that there is no conclusive research evidence that breastfeeding helps prevent the development of food allergies as the child grows older. However, keeping an infant on exclusive breastfeeding does delay the onset of allergies by delaying the infant's exposure to foods that might prompt allergies. Based on research sponsored by the agency for healthcare research and quality, Vitamin D supplementation is recommended for dark-skinned infants and children who are fed only breast milk, beginning by two months of age.

The American Academy of Pediatrics, after an extensive review of the research, recommends that breast milk be almost the only food that a healthy infant receives for the first four to six months after birth. The Surgeon General of the United States and Healthy People 2010 Goals for the Nation have reviewed the research and set national goals related to increasing the number of mothers who breastfeed their infants. Moreover, in the underdeveloped countries where sanitation is poor and community water, milk, and food supplies are likely to be contaminated, breastfed babies have a significantly lower mortality rate.

When an infant suckles the breast, prolactin is released into the bloodstream. This hormone stimulates production of breast milk. It also acts on the pituitary gland, interfering with the action of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, thus reducing the production of estrogen. The low level of estrogen during full breastfeeding interferes with ovulation and menstruation, resulting in lactation amenorrhea.

As a rule, the baby nurses at both breasts during each feeding. The breast used to initiate the feeding should be alternated. Some babies nurse rapidly and others do it slowly. An infant should nurse 10 to 12 times a day initially. The intervals between the feedings will grow longer as the infant grows. Typically, a full-term infant will nurse every 2 to 3 hours.

Researchers and clinicians categorize breastfeeding as either full or partial.Full breastfeeding is either exclusive or almost exclusive (the latter allowing for water, juice, and infrequently given food). Partial breastfeeding is defined as either high (over 80 per cent breast milk), medium, or low (under 20 per cent breast milk). Occasional, irregular breastfeeding (“token” or “comfort feeding”) is a category set apart from breastfeeding.

The la leche league is a voluntary organization that encourages breastfeeding and offers excellent support and guidance to nursing mothers. Local chapters may be listed in the telephone book, or their national office can be contacted by calling 1-800-LALECHE in the USA or 1-800-665-4324 in Canada. The web site for La Leche League International is Lactation consultants can also offer assistance to mothers and health care providers.
effective breastfeeding a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as the state in which a mother-infant dyad/family exhibits adequate proficiency and satisfaction with the breastfeeding process.
ineffective breastfeeding a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as dissatisfaction or difficulty that a mother, infant, or child experiences with the breastfeeding process. Defining characteristics include lack of observable signs of oxytocin release, persistence of sore nipples beyond the first week of breastfeeding, insufficient emptying of each breast at each feeding, actual or perceived inadequate milk supply, nonsustained or insufficient opportunity for sucking at the breast, infant inability to attach correctly to the maternal breast, and infant arching of the back and crying at the breast. Related factors include prematurity, infant anomaly, and maternal anxiety or ambivalence.
interrupted breastfeeding a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a break in the continuity of the breastfeeding process as a result of inability or inadvisability of putting the baby to the breast for feeding.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

Patient discussion about breastfeeding

Q. I gave birth 2 weeks ago and I am having real difficulties breast feeding it hurts really bad, and I am constantly worried that my baby isn't eating enough. What can I do?

A. if it really hurts, maybe you should stop it for a while (maybe there is a micro/small wound at your nipple). You should cure it first then you can soon start breastfeeding your baby again.

Just make sure you have enough drink, be relaxed while breastfeeding, and have enough & healthy nutrition also!
Stay healthy always..

Q. My baby is grunting and groaning while I breastfeed him. Is this normal? It only happens from time to time, but he makes these weird noises while nursing and I would like to know if it's standard behavior.

A. Does it sound like he is having trouble breathing while you breastfeed him? Does he make these sounds while crying also, or just while eating? All of these are things you should report to your pediatrician so you can be sure that the baby is not suffering from anything other than simple reflux while being breastfed.

More discussions about breastfeeding
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References in periodicals archive ?
Effective breastfeeding can reduce substantially the risk for hyperbilirubinemia.
Earlier this year The Times of London quoted a World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 1.5 million infant deaths per year could be averted through effective breastfeeding. But breast-milk substitutes are big business.
One-and-a-half million infant deaths could be averted every year through effective breastfeeding, according to the WHO.
WHO said in 1993 that 1.5 million babies' lives could be saved annually through effective breastfeeding.
In addition, table 3 shows that the knowledge of mothers regarding effective breastfeeding is sufficient as more than 80% of them were aware that babies will gain weight if they receive effective feeding; correct positioning helps to achieve effective breastfeeding and babies sleep well after they receive adequate breastfeeding.
Effective breastfeeding requires good latching on, which is possible when the infant is able to cup around the maternal areola with his tongue.
Early identification of women most at risk of early cessation of breastfeeding paired with implementation of effective breastfeeding promotion strategies may decrease early cessation of breastfeeding in Canada.
The organization NURTURE/ The Center to Prevent Childhood Malnutrition has estimated the average cost for effective breastfeeding promotion to be $32 per pregnant and lactating woman.
In a study conducted in Kenya on HCPs, 38.6% HCPs believed that KMC leads to more effective breastfeeding. Kangaroo care is a beneficial method for bonding, breast-feeding and temperature control of all new-born infants, regardless of weight, gestational age and clinical condition.

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