effect modification

effect modification

Epidemiology An interaction among multiple possible cause-and-effect relationships, where the estimate of the effect of one factor on a disease process depends on other factors in the study
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Using the model parameters from the main analyses, we further conducted several subgroup analyses on potential effect modification by geographical (four typical regions), seasonal (warm period, from May through October; cool period, from November through April), and demographic (age, sex, and education) factors.
It is clear from the articles in this supplement that examining effect modification is increasingly of interest for researchers.
Logistic regression was used to determine the association between First Nations status and the outcome, assessing for effect modification by age and multi-morbidity.
The findings of an effect modification by prediagnostic use of statins in this study could be explained by several factors.
These data suggest that bottle feeding may play a role in HPS aetiology, and further investigations may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the observed effect modification by age and parity," the researchers concluded.
Updated chapters cover recent advances and new developments in the field, such as non-inferiority trials for comparative effectiveness research, incidence-density case-control studies, confounding and effect modification, ethical aspects of whole genome sequencing, automated data management approaches and new NIH grant-writing requirements.
We evaluated demographic, behavioral, reproductive history, and medication covariates for effect modification and confounding.
The finding of an effect modification by gender for the use of metformin was "somewhat unexpected and could not be explained by confounding by use of estrogens," the investigators said, noting that the finding should be interpreted with caution.
Current evidence of effect modification in air pollution respiratory epidemiology is summarized, and potentially useful nascent analytic methods from gender analysis are offered.
The nested case-control study examined the Women's Health Initiative cohort for an effect modification between elevated baseline risk and hormone therapy (HT).
This work is a comprehensive review of this literature and a summary of the principal epidemiologic criteria supporting asbestos as a cause of laryngeal cancer, namely: (1) consistency of the epidemiologic studies, (2) biologic plausibility, (3) strength of association, (4) dose-response effect, and (5) effect modification.
Further studies are needed that elaborate the mechanism by which religiosity operates to influence substance abuse: whether it is a direct causative role, or a buffer-like role, or some other form of effect modification.