Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.


Marked by edema.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


adjective Referring to a tissue with an excess of interstitial fluid; fluid-filled.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.


Marked by edema.
Synonym(s): oedematous.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


(e-de'ma) (-de'mat-a) plural.edemasplural.edemata [Gr. oidema, swelling, tumor]
Enlarge picture
EDEMA: Edematous arm caused by subclavian vein stenosis
A local or generalized condition in which body tissues contain an excessive amount of tissue fluid in the interstitial spaces. Synonym: hydrops See: anasarca; ascites; dropsy; hydrothorax; pericardial effusion See: illustrationedematous (e-de'mat-us), adjective


Edema may result from increased permeability of the capillary walls; increased capillary pressure due to venous obstruction or heart failure; lymphatic obstruction; disturbances in renal function; reduction of plasma proteins; inflammatory conditions; fluid and electrolyte disturbances, esp. those causing sodium retention; malnutrition; starvation; or chemical substances such as bacterial toxins, venoms, caustics, and histamine. Diagnostic studies ( thorough history, physical examination, urinalysis, serum chemistries and liver functions, thyroid function, and chest x-ray) help determine the cause and guide treatment.


Bed rest helps relieve lower extremity edema. Sitting with the feet and legs elevated may also reduce edema in the lower extremities. Dietary salt should be restricted to less than 2 g/day. Fluid intake may be restricted to about 1500 ml in 24 hr. This prescription may be relaxed when free diuresis has been attained. Diuretics relieve swelling when renal function is good and when any underlying abnormality of cardiac function, capillary pressure, or salt retention is being corrected simultaneously. Any effective diuretic may be used. Diuretics are contraindicated in preeclampsia and when serum potassium levels are very low (< 3.0 mEq/dl). They may be ineffective in edema associated with advanced renal insufficiency. The diet in edema should be adequate in protein, high in calories, and rich in vitamins. Patients with significant edema should weigh themselves daily to gauge fluid loss or retention.

Patient care

Edema is documented according to type (pitting, nonpitting, or brawny), extent, location, symmetry, and degree of pitting. Areas over bony prominences are palpated for edema by pressing with the fingertip for 5 sec, then releasing. Normally, the tissue should immediately rebound to its original contour; therefore the depth of indentation is measured and recorded. The patient is questioned about increased tightness of rings, shoes, waistlines of garments, and belts. Periorbital edema is assessed; abdominal girth and ankle circumference are measured; and the patient's weight and fluid intake and output are monitored. Fragile edematous tissues are protected from damage by careful handling and positioning and by providing and teaching about special skin care. Edematous extremities are mobilized and elevated to promote venous return, and lung sounds auscultated for evidence of increasing pulmonary congestion. Prescribed therapies, including sodium restriction, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, protein replacement, and elastic stockings are provided, and the patient is instructed in their use.

angioneurotic edema


Berlin edema

Commotio retinae.

brain edema

Swelling of the brain. It may be caused by increased permeability of brain capillary endothelial cells, focal strokes, swelling of brain cells associated with hypoxia or water intoxication, trauma to the skull, or interstitial edema due to obstructive hydrocephalus.
Synonym: brain swelling; cerebral edema

edema bullosum vesicae

Edema affecting the bladder.

cardiac edema

Edema due to congestive heart failure. It is most apparent in the dependent portion of the body and/or the lungs.

cerebral edema

Brain edema.

dependent edema

Edema of the lower extremities or, if the patient is lying down, of the sacrum.

diabetic macular edema

Swelling of the retina resulting from leakage of fluids from damaged blood vessels in the eye. It is a major cause of visual loss in diabetics, and is related to poor control of blood glucose.

edema of the glottis

Pathological edema in the tissues lining the vocal structures of the larynx. It may result from improper use of the voice, excessive use of tobacco or alcohol, chemical fumes, or viral, bacterial, or fungal infections. Clinically, the patient often presents with hoarseness or, in severe cases, with respiratory distress and stridor. See: epiglottitis


Initially, hoarseness and, later, complete aphonia characterize this condition. Other symptoms are extreme dyspnea, at first on inspiration only, but later also on expiration; stridor; and a barking cough when the epiglottis is involved.

high-altitude pulmonary edema

Abbreviation: HAPE
Pulmonary edema that may occur in aviators, mountain climbers, or anyone exposed to decreased atmospheric pressure.
See: hypoxia

inflammatory edema

Edema associated with inflammation. The cause is assumed to be damage to the capillary endothelium. It is usually nonpitting and localized, red, tender, and warm.

laryngeal edema

Edema of the larynx, usually resulting from allergic reaction and causing airway obstruction unless treated. Therapy consists of intravenous or intratracheal epinephrine, emergency tracheostomy, or both.

malignant edema

Rapid destruction of tissue by cutaneous or subcutaneous infections, such as anthrax or clostridial species.

negative pressure pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema occurring in a patient with upper airway obstruction and negative intrapleural pressures, e.g., in a child with epiglottitis.

edema neonatorum

Edema in newborn, esp. premature, infants. This condition is usually transitory, involving the hands, face, feet, and genitalia, and rarely becomes generalized.
Enlarge picture
PITTING EDEMA: Demonstration of pitting edema
Enlarge picture
PITTING EDEMA: Demonstration of pitting edema

pitting edema

Evidence of fluid in soft tissues, esp. those of dependent body parts like the lower extremities. When pressed firmly with a finger, tissues that are swollen with extravascular fluid retain the shape of the depression produced by the finger. See: illustration

post-traumatic edema

Traumatic edema.

pretibial edema

Edema of the lower leg anterior to the shin (the tibia).

pulmonary edema

A potentially life-threatening edema in the interstitium and alveoli of the lungs. The collected fluid may block the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide and produce respiratory failure.


Fluid may seep out of the alveolar capillaries if these blood vessels are damaged and become excessively permeable to liquids (noncardiogenic pulmonary edema) or if hydrostatic pressures within blood vessels exceed the strength of the normal alveolar capillary wall (cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Cardiogenic pulmonary edema can result from any condition that compromises left ventricular function, causing elevations in pulmonary venous and capillary hydrostatic pressures (congestive heart failure), including myocardial infarction, ischemia, or myocardial stunning; severe valvular heart disease; arrhythmias; excessive intravenous fluid administration; and diastolic dysfunction.

Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema usually results from blood vessel injury, as happens in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (sepsis, shock, aspiration pneumonia, airway obstruction). Occasionally, protein-rich fluid floods the lungs from drug exposure (such as heroin overdose), hypoalbuminemia, high-altitude exposure (mountain sickness), fresh water aspiration in near drowning, hemorrhage in or around the brain, or other conditions. Pulmonary edema can occur as a chronic or acute condition.


Chronic symptoms include dyspnea or exertion, nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, and cough. When pulmonary edema develops rapidly, patients experience a rapid onset of shortness of breath and suffocation and often demonstrate labored, noisy breathing; cough producing frothy, bloody sputum; gasping; anxiety; palpitations; and altered mental status caused by inadequate oxygenation. Signs of the condition include a rapid respiratory rate, heaving of the chest and abdomen, intercostal muscle retractions, diffuse crackles on lung exam, and, often, cold, clammy skin with diaphoresis and cyanosis. Tachycardia, jugular vein distension, and a diastolic (S3) gallop occur. As cardiac output decreases, the pulse becomes thready, and blood pressure falls. Pulmonary artery catheterization helps identify left-sided failure (elevated pulmonary wedge pressures), and arterial blood gases show hypoxia. Profound respiratory alkalosis occurs when patients hyperventilate when trying to increase their oxygenation; acidosis may occur with respiratory fatigue and failure. To improve the movement of air into and out of the chest, the patient will often sit upright to breathe and resist lying down.


Oxygen (in high concentrations by cannula, face mask, or nonrebreather mask) should be administered immediately. Assisted ventilation (continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] or intubation with mechanical ventilation) may be needed to reach acceptable levels of PaO2 and improve acid-base balance. Morphine sulfate, nitrate vasodilators (IV nitroglycerin or nitroprusside) and loop diuretics are typically given to patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema to improve dyspnea, alter preload and afterload on the heart, and promote diuresis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, inotropic drugs (digoxin), antiarrhythmic agents, beta-adrenergic blockers, human B-type natriuretic peptide, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors may be used in selected circumstances. Bronchodilators may also be administered. Depending on the underlying cause, invasive interventions may occasionally include coronary angiography, intra-aortic balloon pump therapy, or surgical interventions such as coronary artery revascularization or valve repair, or ventricular assist device therapy.


The outlook is good if the condition is stabilized or reversed with treatment.

Patient care

The patient's head is elevated; respirations and ventilatory effort are assessed. Oxygen is administered as prescribed, with care taken to limit the flow rate in patients whose respiratory drive is compromised. The lungs are auscultated for adventitious breath sounds such as crackles, gurgles, and wheezes, and the heart is assessed for apical rate and gallops. The patient is monitored for a cough productive of pink, frothy sputum. The skin is checked for diaphoresis and pallor or cyanosis. A medication history is collected, esp. for cardiac or respiratory drugs and use of recreational drugs. The patient's cardiac rate and rhythm, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation levels are monitored continuously. An intravenous (IV) line administering normal saline solution (NSS) is inserted at a keep-vein-open rate to provide access for medication administration. Prescribed first-line drug therapy is administered, and the patient's response to the drugs is evaluated. IV morphine slows respirations, improves hemodynamics, and reduces anxiety. It should be administered before initiating continuous positive air pressure (CPAP). CPAP improves oxygenation and decreases cardiac workload, thus decreasing the need for intubation and ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). An indwelling urinary catheter is inserted to monitor the patient's fluid status; diuresis should begin within 30 min of administration of an IV loop diuretic. Pulmonary edema is a life-threatening respiratory emergency. Everyone involved with the patient must remain calm and quiet, provide ongoing reassurance, and validate everything occurring through basic and simply understood explanations. After the crisis resolves, health care providers should discuss with the patient his or her feelings about the episode and give thorough explanations of what occurred. The at-risk patient is taught early warning signs to act on immediately (such as weight gain or increasing peripheral edema), in an effort to recognize and prevent future episodes. Medications and dietary and lifestyle restrictions are explained (low-sodium diet, losing weight, smoking cessation), and written information provided for home review. The patient should be encouraged to enroll in a cardiac rehabilitation program (as applicable) for regular exercise tailored to his condition.

purulent edema

Edema caused by a local collection of pus.

reexpansion pulmonary edema

Abbreviation: RPE, REPE
Alveolar flooding that occurs after a collapsed or trapped lung reinflates, e.g., after the draining of a pleural effusion or the evacuation of a pneumothorax.

Reinke edema

See: Reinke edema

salt-induced edema

A form of edema worsened by excess sodium in the diet.

traumatic edema

Tissue swelling occuring after blunt or penetrating injury.
Synonym: post-traumatic edema
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners

Patient discussion about edematous

Q. does mosquito bites considered as an edema a bet with a friend- please help solve an issue an help me win a new I pod :)

A. (don't take the mini i-pod, it sucks). it's true-the mosquito has a number of proteins and materials in his saliva that works as anticoagulants and vasodilators (blood vessel broadening). these causes the bite area to start an immune reaction and one of the consequences is an edema-"an increase of interstitial fluid in any organ", that means fluids are exiting blood system. in this case- not too much...

Q. what is "pulmonary edema" and what are the risks? my Dr. told me I'm in a risk group for pulmonary edema, he tried to explain what it is but i didn't understand fully...if someone may give me a brief explanation- I'll appreciate it!

A. pulmonary edema occurs when, lets say, your heart left ventricle stops working properly and your right ventricle works fine. that means your lungs getting lets presume- 1 liter of blood -but your left ventricle can pump out of it only 990 ml. that means you have high blood pressure in your lungs and fluid comes out of blood vessels and fills your lungs, making it harder and harder breathing.

More discussions about edematous
This content is provided by iMedix and is subject to iMedix Terms. The Questions and Answers are not endorsed or recommended and are made available by patients, not doctors.
References in periodicals archive ?
We have found that ARFI technique has a high sensitivity and high specificity for the diagnosis of AP, but it cannot differentiate between edematous and necrotizing AP and it does not have any predictive value for the clinical course of AP.
As a result of gravity, the water distribution in the supine position differs from the upright position in the edematous state, [21] and the variation of body water distribution by BIA measurement of body composition is also affected by different positions [22].
MAs surrounding the edematous areas were not ablated even if they showed focal leakage in FA.
One post parturient udder edematous case in which the edematous swelling extended up to belly recovered in 15 days and animal which was completely off fed, showed reluctant to move as a result of severe post parturient udder edema died on 6th day of post treatment.
Third, in this study, we did not assess functional differences in dry versus edematous retina following navigated MLP.
There was a significant diffusion restriction in 18 patients with CD in the active phase (mean ADC values for the fibrotic mesentery: 2,58 [+ or -] 0,33 x [10.sup.-3], mean ADC values for edematous mesentery: 2,14 [+ or -] 0,28 x [10.sup.-3]).
Out of eight cases, only one case was showing accumulation of the edematous fluid at the subcutaneous tissue of the neck.
They described a 42 year old woman with HL that after 10 weeks starting multibacillary multi-drug therapy developed pruritic, painful, erythematous and edematous papules, partly ulcerated plaques and nodules over the face, trunk and extremities, and a few ulcerated papules over the forearm.
In the current patient, the initial MRI showed fatty signal changes with inhomogeneous edematous lesions in the right gluteus medius muscle (Figure 1).
Scrotal ultrasonography reveals a moderate hydrocele surrounding the testis and edematous testis (A) The longitudinal image of the torsive right testis shows no blood flow by color Doppler examination (B) Sonographic image shows a markedly edematous spermatic cord and cranio-caudal examination reveals a counter-clockwise twist; the white arrow shows the direction of the torsion (C,D).
The findings of enlarged, edematous ovaries with edematous cortex, peripheral placed follicles and no color flow on Doppler interrogation and free fluid in Pouch of douglas were consistent findings.
Many of the stromal fenestrations were edematous, paucicellular, with a slightly hyalinized appearance, showing gradual transformation towards cystic spaces.