#3: Environmental Health Is Not Part of Emergency Preparedness and Response
354; emphasis added) In the selections that follow, we will examine three specific manifestations of Robinson's ecological fallacy
, i.e., data analysis techniques in which inferences are drawn regarding individuals based on aggregat-level data.
I found it odd that King did not test his method on the most famous example of the ecological fallacy
(though he uses another empirical example from Robinson's paper).
1983 "The ecological fallacy
revisited: Aggregate- versus individual-level findings on economics, elections, and sociotropic voting." American Political Science Review 77:92-111.
There may well be a cultural reason for the fact that the ecological fallacy is usually recognized and avoided, but not the reverse situation.
The ecological fallacy is a temptation for sociologists and political scientists who deal with aggregate data, and, in an individualistic environment, they will be quickly called to order if they commit the fallacy.
It was preserved the same association and direction that those found in the ecological study, indicating that there was no ecological fallacy; therefore, the association found at the ecological level can be inferred at individual level.
Although the ecological association may exactly reflect a causal link between a risk factor and an effect, the ecological fallacy may limit its usefulness.
It is a common practice to assume the presence of ecological fallacy
(Robinson 1950) and low-level validity when analyzing an ecological study.
The fallacy of the ecological fallacy
the potential misuse of a concept and the consequences.
His main methodological criticism of the voting studies is familiar to students of the late Weimar period: Despite valiant efforts to overcome the ecological fallacy
, the absence of individual-level voting data makes it difficult to say with any assurance who exactly liked the Nazis.
This major limitation of ecologic analysis, known as "ecological fallacy
," is well known to epidemiologists.