The 10 class labels chosen were based on clinical significance and availability: schistocytes, dacrocytes (teardrop cells), acanthocytes, elliptocytes, stomatocytes, spherocytes, codocytes (target cells), echinocytes
, overlap, and normal.
One set of agents, including anionic amphipaths, high salt, high pH, ATP depletion, and cholesterol enrichment, induces spiculated shapes, called echinocytes
. Another set of agents, including cationic amphipaths, low salt, low pH, and cholesterol depletion, induces concave shapes, called stomatocytes.
Erythrocytes are crenated, some with cytoplasmic spikes (echinocytes
In sepsis, inflammation resulting from ROS production promotes morphological changes in erythrocytes, with the appearance of spherocytes, cup-shaped cells, and especially echinocytes
. These oxidatively modified erythrocytes were observed in blood samples obtained from septic patients using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
1) showed a leukoerythroblastic picture with marked polychromasia, large number of circulating nucleated red blood cells and marked poikilocytosis including blister cells, spherocytes and echinocytes
, consistent with oxidative hemolysis.
The effect on morphology of erythrocytes by contrast media has also been studied [64, 65], with formation of echinocytes
and stomatocytes observed upon incubation of erythrocytes with contrast media which may have a negative effect on the rheology of the blood .
The activity of betulinic acid and some of its analogues - betulinic aldehyde, lupeol, betulin, methyl betulinate, and betulinic acid amide has been studied on their ability (according to their hydrogen bonding properties) to cause changes in erythrocyte membrane shape towards formation of stomatocytes or echinocytes
. Apparently, analogues lacking this ability induced formation of stomatocytes, whereas analogues having the capacity of donating a hydrogen bond caused formation of echinocytes
In the examinations of abnormal shapes of erythrocytes, only microcytes, macrocytes, echinocytes
and drepanocytes were discerned sporadically, once in several microscopic fields.
Marked changes in the shape of RBC from normal discocytes to echinocytes
, spherocytes, stomatocytes and acanthocytes were also observed in the blood of the rats treated with (131)I.
RESULTS: Prolonged exposure to low-dose mercuric ion ([Hg.sup.2+]; 0.25-5 [micro]M for 1-48 hr) induced erythrocyte shape changes from discocytes to echinocytes
to spherocytes, accompanied by microvesicle (MV) generation.
The leukocytosis increased to a peak count of 18,400/ [micro]L, with 40% band forms and evidence of myelocytes, metamyelocytes, and echinocytes
on a peripheral smear.