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dystonia(dis-to'ne-a) [ dys- + tono- + -ia]
Many childhood dystonias are genetically inherited. Drugs used to treat psychosis, Parkinson disease, strokes, brain tumors, toxic levels of manganese or carbon dioxide, and viral encephalitis may produce dystonia.
Offending drugs are withdrawn, and the patient may be treated with diphenhydramine. Focal dystonias, such as blepharospasm or torticollis, may be treated with injected botulinum toxin, which paralyzes hypertonic muscle groups. Physiotherapy may also be helpful. Other treatments include physical therapy, deep brain stimulation, and pallidotomy.