dystonia


Also found in: Dictionary, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

dystonia

 [dis-to´ne-ah]
impairment of muscular tonus. adj., adj dyston´ic.
tardive dystonia a variant of tardive dyskinesia characterized by unusual posturing and movements.

dys·to·ni·a

(dis-tō'nē-ă),
A syndrome of abnormal muscle contraction that produces repetitive involuntary twisting movements and abnormal posturing of the neck, trunk, face, and extremities.
[dys- + G. tonos, tension]

dystonia

(dĭs-tō′nē-ə)
n.
Abnormal tonicity of muscle, characterized by prolonged, repetitive muscle contractions that may cause twisting or jerking movements of the body or a body part.

dys·ton′ic (-tŏn′ĭk) adj.

dystonia

Neurology Involuntary, often acute movement and prolonged contraction of one or more muscles, resulting in twisting body motions, tremor, and abnormal posture Etiology Inherited, ↑ during voluntary movement, nervousness, and emotional stress; dystonias may affect the extrapyramidal system–despite lack of demonstrable lesions, task specific–eg, writer's cramp or associated with medications–especially antipsychotics or disease–eg, a form of lung cancer Location Tongue, jaw, eyes, neck, trunk, extremities, occasionally the whole body Management Dopamine, sedatives–benzodiazepines–eg diazepam, anticholinergics–eg, trihexyphenidyl, benztropine–which cause dry mouth, mydriasis, urinary retention, and visual hallucinations; surgery. See Cranial dystonia, Dopa-responsive dystonia, Focal dystonia, Idiopathic torsion dystonia, Oromandibular dystonia, Segawa's dystonia, Torsion dystonia.

dys·to·ni·a

(dis-tō'nē-ă)
A state of abnormal (either hypo- or hyper-) tonicity in any tissue, particularly skeletal muscle.
Synonym(s): torsion spasm.
[dys- + G. tonos, tension]

dystonia

A group of muscle disorders featuring variable muscle tone, muscle spasms, abnormal posture or muscle contraction, or interference with normal movement. The dystonias include wry-neck (TORTICOLLIS), WRITER'S CRAMP, spasmodic closure of the eyelids (BLEPHAROSPASM) and involuntary grimacing and chewing movements (Meige syndrome). Dystonias may be of autosomal dominant or recessive or X-linked aetiology. Botulinum toxin treatment is effective in many cases.

Dystonia

A movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions that result in writhing or twisting movements and unsual body postures.

dys·to·ni·a

(dis-tō'nē-ă)
A syndrome of abnormal muscle contraction that produces repetitive involuntary twisting movements and abnormal posturing of the neck, trunk, face, and extremities.
[dys- + G. tonos, tension]
References in periodicals archive ?
Practice guideline update summary: botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, adult spasticity, and headache: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.
The Johns Hopkins Genetics and Public Policy Center, which contacted over 6,000 people through surveys and focus groups from 2002 to 2004, summed up its findings this way: "In general, Americans approve of using reproductive genetic tests to prevent fatal childhood disease, but do not approve of using the same tests to identify or select for traits like intelligence or strength." The dystonia gene is in a gray zone--some people born with it live perfectly healthy lives--yet presumably few parents would criticize Matthew and Olivia's choice to weed it out.
Focal dystonia is more frequent amongst musicians than in the general population because musicians fulfil the extrinsic criteria required to demonstrate the condition, primarily in the forms of psychological stressors and abnormal sensory input.
It severely limits the function of hand and foot making the person disabled and dependent on others for their activities of daily living.3 The frequency of post-stroke dystonia was reported as 17% in Lausanne stroke registry and 29% in Ecuador stroke registry.4 So far many hypotheses have been given to explain the development of this complication, but what is the actual cause, is still debatable.
[ber eine eigenartige Krampfkrankheit des kindlichen und jugendlichen Alters (Dysbasia lordotica progressiva, Dystonia musculorum deformans)].
(5) suggested that a subclinic basal ganglia lesion coupled with a lesion affecting the systems that control head and neck movements (including the vestibular system) causes cervical dystonia. Stimulation of the nucleus of Cajal, which is closely related to vestibular nuclei, initiates rotational head movements toward the side of the stimulus (5).
It is important including GA-I in the differential diagnosis of leukoencephalopathy, dystonia combined with macrocephaly or not.
We present the first case report of a young man with dopa-responsive dystonia and schizoaffective disorder.
Patients with focal hand dystonia present two main alterations after PAS: first, the amount of facilitation is larger than normal; second and more important, the spatial specificity is lost so that facilitation also occurred in surrounding muscles [11].
It now plans to proceed to a phase three programme in cervical dystonia based on the phase two safety and efficacy results, along with guidance from the US FDA and the EMA.