Spirometry, Medical Research Council (MRC) Dyspnea Scale
, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and St.
The severity of disease was measured by global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria; and dyspnea was assessed by modified medical research council dyspnea scale
. Anthropometric indicators of malnutrition such as body mass index (BMI) and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured to evaluate the nutritional status of COPD patients.
The GOLD 2017 classification simplified the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease staging that was available from 2011 to 2015 from three variables (spirometry thresholds, exacerbation risk, and dyspnea scale
) to two variables (exacerbation risk and dyspnea scale
Tool used in the present study was structured observational checklist for assessing cardiopulmonary parameters, i.e., blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, Spo2, cough, chest expansion, breath sounds, chest expansion, and pediatric dyspnea scale
. The content validity of the tool was ensured by submitting tool to experts from the field of pediatric medicine, child health nursing, maternal and child health nursing and medical surgical nursing.
Clinical data, including modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale
, and treatment response based on chest computed tomography (CT) findings were reviewed.
(44) An additional tool often useful in clinical practice is the Medical Research Council (MRC) Dyspnea Scale
, (5) but it is important to note that this measure does not provide information on any symptoms other than dyspnea.
G6 (smc) Average R [alpha] [alpha] Total 0.8944 1 1 1 MQ 0.95 1 1 1 SGRQ 0.8312 1 1 1 mMRC 0.7674 1 1 1 Dyspnea Scale
SF-36 Scale 0.8204 1 1 1 HADS 0.8697 1 1 1 Table 4: Multifactorial nonlinear regression analysis values for model development.
VAS dyspnea scale
is a horizontal line, 100 mm in length and anchored by word descriptors at each end.
Exclusion criteria were 1) pain in the lower extremity related to musculoskeletal dysfunctions, limiting the level of ambulation; 2) additional systemic diseases (COPD, hearth failure etc.) causing dyspnea at level of [greater than or equal to]3 according to the Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale
(MRC); and 3) having a hospital exit report recommending physical activity restriction for a certain period of time.
Patients' dyspnea scale
was graded according to the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale
which includes five grades.
The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (2014) endorsed the Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale
(MRCDS) to evaluate the incapacity of a patient with COPD due to breathlessness (see Figure 1).