In addition, research showed that Lin28b induced dynorphin
(DYN) synthesis and that alcohol stimulated DYN release (Srivastava et al.
was shown to suppress withdrawal syndrome in heroin-dependent humans (23) and morphine-dependent animals through the [ALEPH]-opioid receptors in the spinal cord.
And the dynorphins
interact selectively with the kappa opioid receptor (Gianoulakis, 1993).
Rostrocaudal subregional differences in the response of enkephalin, dynorphin
and substance P synthesis in rat nucleus accumbens to dopamine depletion.
is an endogenous opioid peptide with a high affinity for the kappa-opioid receptor and its up-regulation in the spinal cord coincide whit an elevation in pain thresholds in rats during pregnancy and parturition (BRADSHAW et al.
Among the neurotransmitters that affect the release of gonadal secretions are endogenous opioid peptides like enkephalin, dynorphin
, beta endorphins etc.
Striatal enkephalin and dynorphin
opioid systems mediate reward and negative affect, respectively, and are relevant to addiction disorders.
TENS has resulted in increased levels of Y-amino-butyric acid (GABA), endorphin, encephalin and dynorphin
in spinal cord (41,42).
37) Other neuroendocrine substances and structures involved include, but not limited to, serotonin, norepinephrine, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, opioid peptide receptors, [gamma]-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems, dynorphin
, acetylcholine, corticotrophin releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and corticosterone.
Thus, deregulation of noradrenaline, dynorphin
, vasopressin, orexin, and substance P all appear to play a role in alcohol dependence (Koob 2008).
Immunoreactivity to dynorphin
, an endogenous opioid, is also increased in regions of histopathologic damage, and decreased blood flow in rat brain following fluid-percussion TBI .
Kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the ewe express both dynorphin
A and neurokinin B.