Dopaminergic denervation has opposite effects on the expression of striatal enkephalin, substance P and dynorphin
, as dopaminergic afferents act differentially on direct and indirect pathways.
Carlezon Jr., "Dynorphin
, stress, and depression," Brain Research, vol.
In addition, research showed that Lin28b induced dynorphin
(DYN) synthesis and that alcohol stimulated DYN release (Srivastava et al.
opioid peptides enhance acid sensing ion channel 1a activity and acidosis-induced neuronal death," Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is seen in both diseases with the resultant release of corti-cotropin releasing factor (CRF) and dynorphin
, an endogenous opioid peptide (Figure 1(a)).
Adler, "Antinociceptive action of intracerebroventricularly administered dynorphin
and other opioid peptides in the rat," Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol.
In the indirect pathway, the MSNs express enkephalin, while in the direct pathway the MSNs express dynorphin
Krajewski-Hall, "Modulation of body temperature and LH secretion by hypothalamic KNDy (kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin
) neurons: a novel hypothesis on the mechanism of hot flushes," Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, vol.
Han et al (19,20) from Beijing Medical University, China, concluded that the antinociceptive effect was frequency-dependent, with low-frequency (2 Hz) stimulation accelerating production of endorphin and encephalin, and high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz) up-regulating the dynorphin
First, the weight loss could stem from the "anorexia of aging," meaning that dysfunctional production of certain hormones such as cholecystokinin, leptin, cytokines, dynorphin
, neuropeptide Y, and serotonin--or dysfunctional dietary intakes and energy metabolism could lead patients to eat less, which could in turn raise MCI risk.
Others address the treatment of addiction, predicting drug obehavioro in humans, prefrontal cortex targets for cognition, melatonin receptors, neurotransmitter transporters, G protein-coupled receptor heteromers, genome integrity in aging, oxysterols, receptor activity-modifying proteins, pluripotent stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases, the role of spinal dynorphin
in chronic pain, the design of next-generation G protein-coupled receptor drugs, nonclinical tools to assess the risk of drug hypersensitivity reactions, sleep pharmacogenetics and personalized sleep-wake therapy, nuclear receptors as therapeutic targets in liver disease, and epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation in the cardiovascular system.
"Hemodialysis patients have an increased ratio of beta-endorphin to dynorphin
A, and the ratio is associated with increased itch intensity."