psychoanalytic psychotherapy

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psychotherapy

 [si″ko-ther´ah-pe]
any of a number of related techniques for treating mental illness by psychologic methods. These techniques are similar in that they all rely mainly on establishing a relationship between the therapist and the patient as a means of developing the patient's insight into the motivation behind his or her behavior. On occasion, drugs may be used, but only in order to make this communication easier.
Forms of Psychotherapy. Perhaps the best known form of psychotherapy is psychoanalysis, the technique developed by Dr. Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis attempts, through free association and dream interpretation, to reveal and resolve the unconscious conflicts that are at the root of mental illness.

Closely related to psychoanalysis is analytically oriented therapy, or “brief therapy.” This uses some of the techniques of psychoanalysis, but tends to concentrate on the patient's present-life difficulties rather than on the unconscious roots of these difficulties.

One widely used technique is group therapy. Six to ten patients meet regularly to discuss their problems under the guidance of a group therapist. Group therapy is based on the principle of transference—that is, a patient tends to react to others in terms of his childhood attitudes toward family members. During group therapy, he may react to one member of the group as a hated rival brother, and to another as a dominating mother. In the give-and-take of discussion, he will begin to recognize the distortions in these reactions, and to see similar distortions in his day-to-day relationships with other people. Group therapy may be combined with individual therapy. Group therapy can help reduce the cost to each patient. It is also widely used in mental health centers, where it has helped relieve the great shortage of trained therapists.

Adjunctive therapy, such as occupational therapy and music therapy, is helpful in relieving tensions and emotional problems that are associated with a feeling of uselessness. Psychodrama, in which patients act out fantasies or real-life situations, may provide a means of communication for patients who are not capable of expressing their problem by speech.

Play therapy is a form of psychotherapy adapted to children. It is very difficult to induce an emotionally disturbed or even a normal child to talk about his problems. Play therapy provides an alternative. Children reveal themselves when they play with toys provided by the therapist and act out their fantasies. The therapist helps them “get things out of their system,” accepting them warmly as they are, and guiding them toward a solution to their problems. Since these are closely related to the way children are treated at home, play therapy is usually combined with some form of therapy for the parents. Family group therapy, in which the entire family meets regularly with the therapist, can be particularly effective.

Cognitive therapy is based on the idea that a person's feelings and behavior result from that person's perceptions of the world and that psychological disturbances result from faulty ways of thinking. The therapist is active in helping the patient to restructure his or her distorted perceptions, using a combination of verbal and behavior modification techniques.
brief psychotherapy psychotherapy limited to a preagreed number of sessions, generally 10 to 20, or termination date. It is usually active and directive, and often oriented toward a specific problem or symptom.
psychoanalytic psychotherapy psychoanalysis (def. 3).

psy·cho·an·a·lyt·ic psy·cho·ther·a·py

psychotherapy using freudian principles.
See also: psychoanalysis.
References in periodicals archive ?
The trust also reported that the average wait for cognitive behavioural therapy was eight weeks, with a two week wait for family therapy and a 10 week wait for dialectic behavioural therapy, while the average wait for dynamic psychotherapy was 14 weeks.
Supervision Essentials for Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy
The focus on unconscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors is the central principle of dynamic psychotherapy in which the therapist listens to the patients speak freely about important people and events in their day-to-day lives and takes note of themes that emerge.
Short-term dynamic psychotherapy, which focuses on uncovering hidden feelings that may interfere with relationships, communication, and functioning.
Psychotherapists from the US, Canada, Europe, and Australia address the history of narcissism; its features, including interpersonal problems, affect regulation and mentalization, intrapsychic conflicts and defenses, suicide risk, and sex and race-ethnic differences in co-occurring disorders; diagnosis, subtypes, and assessment using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, and Pathological Narcissism Inventory; and treatment considerations, including countertransference issues, maintaining boundaries, transference-focused psychotherapy, Kohut's self psychology approach, short-term dynamic psychotherapy, schema therapy, and cognitive behavioral perspectives.
1] and treated by specific emotion-focused treatments, including Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP).
At the start of his career as a psychiatrist, Nat primarily offered dynamic psychotherapy to his patients and, in some cases, he adopted more of an analytical approach.
All patients started 12 consecutive weekly sessions of Malan-based brief focused dynamic psychotherapy by expert psychotherapists, Dr.
Later on, Weiner and Exner (1991) tested 27 Rorschach Comprehensive System variables related to adjustment difficulty as potential clues to insufficient treatment progress in long-term dynamic psychotherapy.
The challenge of evidence-based medicine has led to a crisis in the self-understanding of dynamic psychotherapy.

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