In terms of the duty cycle
, meanwhile, the average current increases in proportion to the duty cycle
, but the dither amplitude is maximized at 50% duty cycle
and becomes zero at 0% and 100% duty cycles
It is certainly value added since it would be closer the real world duty cycles
, and therefore easier to conduct truly comparative performance scenarios for different systems.
The correct equivalent DC current for each duty cycle
is the effective RMS current (for a square wave), given by the formula RMS = 5 * SQRT (DCy), where DCy is the duty cycle
expressed as a fraction.
The algorithm requires the knowledge of the location of the PV panel operation point and the controller is switching between adaptive duty cycle
control and fixed duty cycle
Different simulations are performed with both converters at various duty cycles
The result is a DPF with an extended application range for highway and nonroad diesel engines with an enhanced ability to operate under variable or colder duty cycles
, the company said.
The Waveforms for different duty cycles
at the output of buffer after implementation are shown in figure 4 and the output waveforms with load for different duty cycles
are shown in figure 5.
S6 -- Continuous operation--periodic duty type: A sequence of similar duty cycles
at constant load separated by no-load--but continuously running--condition.
As a result, the net change to the combined duty cycles
for all stages always equals zero.
Little can be done to control these temperatures, Winkle admits, but it's for this reason that the company recommends purchasing magnets designed for hot surface work and proper duty cycles
However, in this new era of SAN-based backup, automated tape libraries and the underlying tape drive technology are facing the challenge of dramatically higher duty cycles
and rigid uptime and availability requirements.
Kluemper and his crew arrived with Spectrum Expert and saw duty cycles
in the 70s with peaks of 100.