Most of our knowledge about pathogenesis and the replication of hepatitis B virus has been obtained from studies of hepadnaviruses related to animals as models, including Duck Hepatitis
B Virus (DHBV), (41) Woodchuck Hepatitis virus (WHV), (42) Ground Squirrel Hepatitis virus (GSHV), (43) Arctic Squirrel Hepatitis virus (ASHV), (44) Heron Hepatitis B Virus (HHBV), (45) and Stork Hepatitis B Virus (STHBV).
With inhibitory activities against HBV DNA replications in vitro and in vivo, 3TC is usually used as positive control in anti-HBV research with the effect of inhibiting hepadnavirus replication in 2.2.15 cells and in ducks chronically infected with the duck hepatitis
B virus (Ketzinel-Gilad et al.
Their topics include descriptions of models for immunopathogenesis and therapy of hepadnaviral infection, the pathogenesis of the Hepatitis B virus in transgenic mice, the transfer of HBV genomes into mice, recent advances in the duck hepatitis
B viral model, and determinants of hepadnaviral species and liver cell tropism.