The evaluated variables were plant height (H); diameter of the stem (SD); leaf dry mass
(LDM); stem dry mass
(SDM); shoot dry mass
(SHDM); principal root dry mass
(PRDM); secondary root dry mass
(SRDM); total root dry mass
(TRDM); total dry mass
(TDM); shoot height: diameter ratio (SHDR), shoot: root ratio (SRR) and quality index of Dickson (DQI).
The use of plastic covers, which are capable of blocking various levels of incident UVA and UVB radiation, is an alternative to investigate and stimulate the effects of UV radiation on the synthesis of secondary metabolites that are found in low concentrations in plants, i.e., approximately 1% of the plant's total dry mass
(MORMILE et al., 2017).
At 120 days after sowing, the following characteristics were evaluated: shoot, root and total lengths (cm); stem diameter (mm); dry masses
of stem, leaves, root system and total (g); ratio between root and shoot dry mass
; and Dickson quality index (DQI), calculated by the formula: DQI = [TDM/(TL/SD) + (ShDM/RDM)] (Dickson et al., 1960), where: TDM--total dry mass
; TL--total length; SD--stem diameter; ShDM--shoot dry mass
and RDM--root dry mass
After drying shoot dry mass
per species per pot was determined.
For seedlings development, cuttings were removed from the tubes after 90 days and taken to I Fruit Production Laboratory, Department of Horticulture (FCA-UNESP), where were washed in running water, dried in room temperature, and the following traits were evaluated: percentage of rooted cuttings, sprout cuttings and cuttings without sprouts and roots per season, counted individually by repetition; number of sprouted buds, leaves and roots per cutting, counted individually; length of the largest root and sprout, determined using a graduated ruler; sprout diameter, determined using a digital calliper; sprout and root fresh mass, measured using an analytical balance; sprout and root dry mass
; and root volume.
For example, bee body size (dry mass
) is an important trait that is often used as a proxy for foraging distance (Greenleaf et al.
In ecological studies, spiders and other arthropods are usually caught in different preserving agents and transferred to ethanol for identification and voucher depositing, causing unpredictable changes in fresh mass and prohibiting desiecation for dry mass
. Therefore, alternative methods to estimate the body mass have repeatedly been developed and tested (e.g., for aquatic invertebrates: Johnston & Cunjak 1999; Miserendino 2001; Sabo et al.
The remaining carcass and the excised organs were dried to constant mass in an oven at 60 AdegC (for at least 72 h), and then weighed again to obtain a dry mass
Measurement of pseudo stem height and shoot dry mass
: Five sprouted cloves were randomly taken and pseudo stem height was measured at 49th day after planting.
Monthly dry mass
(g DM [m.sup.-2]) was measured directly by weighing the soft parts of the whole samples of clams after drying at 60[degrees]C until constant weight.
The ship measures nine metres in diameter, 48 metres long and has a dry mass
of 85 tons.