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hypohidrosisReduced sweat production
I Inherited conditions, eg hereditary anhydrotic ectodermal dysplasia, ichthyosis, or angiokeratoma corporis diffusum universale
II Acquired conditions
Collagen vascular diseases–-Sjögren syndrome, progressive systemic sclerosis
Dermatopathies–Miliaria profunda, pemphigus vulgaris, psoriasis
Drugs Anticholinergics, eg atropine, scopolamine; ganglionic blockers
Endocrinopathies Diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism, hypothalamic lesions
Environmental stress Heat stroke and dehydration
Peripheral neuropathy Alcohol, amyloidosis, DM, Horner syndrome, leprosy
gynecomastiaBenign enlargement of ♂ breast that most commonly affects boys and adolescents, often regresses at puberty; it is usually due to a proliferation of glandular component; may occur in Klinefelter syndrome or after malnutrition Age-related peaks
1. Perinatal, in 60-90% of ♂ at birth, due to transplacental passage of estrogens.
2. Pubertal, up to 70%, depending on stringency of definition.
3. Involutional, age 50-80% Treatment Clomiphene, tamoxifen, testolactone, surgery. See Adolescent gynecomastia.
Endocrinopathy Orchitis, hypogonadism–androgen deficiency, androgen resistance, tumors/hyperplasia of adrenal gland, testes, eg Leydig cell tumor–↑ hCG, lung CA, Klinefelter syndrome–↑ risk of breast CA and thyroid hyperplasia
Drugs α-methyldopa, amphetamine, androgens, benzodiazepines, cimetidine, chemotherapeutics, digitalis, INH, marijuana, penicillamine, phenothiazine, reserpine, spironolactone, tricyclic antidepressants
Other conditions Starvation diet–mechanism: testicular, hepatic hypofunction or on resuming feeding, hemodialysis, liver disease–cirrhosis, hepatomas, hemochromatosis, due to ↓ hepatic metabolism of estrogens, mycosis fungoides, myotonic dystrophy with spastic paraplegia, leprosy