dronabinol


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Related to dronabinol: Marinol

dronabinol

 [dro-nab´in-ol]
one of the major active substances in cannabis, used to treat nausea and vomiting in antineoplastic therapy and to treat anorexia associated with weight loss in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; it is subject to abuse because of its psychotomimetic activity.

dronabinol

Marinol

Pharmacologic class: Cannabinoid

Therapeutic class: Antiemetic

Controlled substance III

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Unknown. May exert antiemetic effect by inhibiting vomiting control mechanism in medulla oblongata.

Availability

Capsules: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg

Indications and dosages

Prevention of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy

Adults and children: Initially, 5 mg/m2 P.O. 1 to 3 hours before chemotherapy. Repeat dose q 2 to 4 hours after chemotherapy, up to four to six doses per day. If 5-mg/m2 dose is ineffective and patient has no significant adverse reactions, dosage may be increased in increments of 2.5 mg/m2 to a maximum dosage of 15 mg/m2.

Appetite stimulant

Adults and children: Initially, 2.5 mg P.O. b.i.d. May reduce dosage to 2.5 mg/day given as a single evening or bedtime dose. Maximum dosage is 10 mg P.O. b.i.d.

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to cannabinoids or sesame oil

• Breastfeeding

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• hypertension, heart disease, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, drug abuse, seizures

• pregnant patients.

Administration

• When used to stimulate appetite, give before lunch and dinner.

Adverse reactions

CNS: drowsiness, anxiety, impaired coordination, irritability, depression, headache, hallucinations, memory loss, paresthesia, ataxia, paranoia, disorientation, nightmares, speech difficulties, syncope, suicidal ideation

CV: tachycardia, hypotension, hypertension

EENT: visual disturbances, tinnitus

GI: dry mouth

Skin: facial flushing, diaphoresis

Interactions

Drug-drug. Anticholinergics, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants: increased tachycardia and hypertension

CNS depressants: increased CNS depression

Ritonavir: increased dronabinol blood level and risk of toxicity

Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased CNS depression

Patient monitoring

• Monitor vital signs for hypotension and tachycardia.

Check for adverse CNS reactions. Report significant depression, paranoid reaction, or emotional lability.

• Monitor nutritional status and hydration.

Patient teaching

• Teach patient about drug's significant adverse CNS and cardiovascular effects. Emphasize that he should take it only as prescribed and needed.

Advise patient (and significant other) to immediately report depression, suicidal thoughts, paranoid reactions, seizures, and other serious CNS reactions.

• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and behaviors mentioned above.

dro·nab·i·nol

(drō-nab'i-nol),
A major psychoactive substance present in Cannabis sativa, used therapeutically as an antinauseant to control the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy.
See also: tetrahydrocannabinols.

dronabinol

(drō-năb′ə-nôl)
n.
A synthetic form of THC, the principal psychoactive substance in Cannabis sativa, used therapeutically to control nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and to treat anorexia and weight loss in patients with AIDS.

dronabinol

Marinol® A synthetic Δ9THC-tetrahydrocannabinol, an active ingredient of marijuana, which may be used to manage glaucoma, pain, N&V, anorexia, wasting linked to chemotherapy, AIDS Adverse effect Drowsiness, confusion, poor coordination. See Marijuana, THC.

dro·nab·i·nol

(drō-nab'i-nol)
A major psychoactive substance present in Cannabis sativa; used therapeutically as an antinauseant to control the queasiness and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy.
See also: tetrahydrocannabinols
References in periodicals archive ?
Aloi's use of dronabinol was not covered because it was offlabel; it held that '[t]he Medicare-approved compendia do not contain any citations to support the use of this drug for [schizoaffective disorder and generalized anxiety disorder].' Mr.
The cannabinoid drugs used were: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (11 studies), THC + cannabidiol (two studies), cannabidiol (one study), dronabinol (five studies), nabilone (11 studies), levonantradol (two studies), GW842166 (one study), and dexabinol (one study).
Although some evidence suggests cannabis-based drugs, including dronabinol and nabilone, may have therapeutic benefits for some patients with life-limiting conditions (Philipsen et al 2014; Green and De-Vries 2010), medicinal cannabis in emesis control is a very new treatment option available for Australians.
It is available by prescription --Marinol (dronabinol) and Cesamet (nabilone).
Please note that "medical marijuana" does not include cannabinoids that have gone through FDA approval such as dronabinol and nabilone.
Es el caso de las capsulas de Dronabinol que se usan para controlar las nauseas y el vomito, asi como para subir el peso corporal de quienes padecen de inanicion cronica.
Assessment of driving capability through the use of clinical and psychomotor tests in relation to blood cannabinoid levels following oral administration of 20 mg dronabinol or of a cannabis decoction made with 20 or 60 mg A9-THC.
Based on the side effects of dronabinol (Marinol[R]), an FDA-approved cannabinoid (a chemical related to components of marijuana), elderly patients would be more susceptible to the central nervous system depressant effects (euphoria, dizziness, drowsiness) of marijuana.
Medications such as dronabinol and nabilone consist of psychoactive ingredients of the cannabis plant, and are available in a number of countries for the treatment of medical conditions, such as nausea after chemotherapy, pain and spasticity.
Synthetic cannabinoids include dronabinol (Marinol[R]) and nabilone (Cesamet[R]).