dose response


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Related to dose response: Dose Response Curve

dose response

a range of doses over which response occurs. Doses lower than the threshold produce no response while those in excess of the threshold exert no additional response. The shape of the curve is usually hyperbolic when plotted with linear axes and gives a sigmoidal curve when response is plotted versus the log of the dose. Beneficial drug responses are typically plotted on separate dose response curves. Because the dose response and the chemotherapeutic index can overlap to some degree and may have different slopes, the margin of safety is often considered to be a better index.

dose response

1. The relationship between the quantity or intensity of a treatment regimen and its effect on living cells, tissues, or organisms.
2. The relationship between the intensity of an exposure, e.g., to an infectious pathogen, physical stressor, or a toxin, and its effect on living organisms.
See also: response

dose

the quantity to be administered at one time, as a specified amount of medication or a given quantity of radiation.

absorbed dose
that amount of energy from ionizing radiations absorbed per unit mass of matter, expressed in Grays.
air dose
the intensity of an x- or gamma-ray beam in air, expressed in coulombs per kilogram.
booster dose
an amount of immunogen (vaccine, toxoid or other antigen preparation), sometimes smaller than the original amount, injected at an appropriate interval after primary immunization to enhance and sustain the immune response to that immunogen.
curative dose (CD)
a dose that is sufficient to restore normal health.
divided dose
a fraction of the total quantity of a drug prescribed to be given at intervals, usually during a 24-hour period.
dose equivalent limits
the limits of ionizing radiation set for radiation workers and the general public by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. For radiology workers this limit for the whole body is 50 mSv.
fatal dose
lethal dose.
dose fractions
in radiation therapy, the small doses given to reach the total radiation dose during the treatment period.
infectious dose 50 (ID50)
that amount of pathogenic microorganisms that will produce infection in 50% of the test subjects.
infective dose (ID)
that amount of pathogenic microorganisms that will cause infection in susceptible subjects.
lethal dose (LD)
the amount of toxin or drug that will kill an animal.
dose level
the amount administered per unit of body weight.
loading dose
the initial large dose of a drug given to bring tissue and fluid levels to an effective concentration quickly. Called also priming dose.
maintenance dose
the smaller doses given to maintain effective levels in body fluids and tissues after the loading dose has achieved the concentration desired.
maximum permissible dose
see dose equivalent limits (above).
median curative dose (CD50)
a dose that abolishes signs in 50% of test animals.
median effective dose (MED)
the dose that produces the desired effect in 50% of the test animals.
median lethal dose (MD50)
the quantity of an agent that will kill 50% of the test subjects; in radiology, the amount of radiation that will kill, within a specified period, 50% of individuals in a large group or population.
minimum lethal dose (MLD)
the lowest dose which kills all of the test subjects.
dose rate
the amount administered per unit of time.
dose response
1. the incremental change in the subject per unit of additional dose. The response as a function of the dose.
2. the frequency of occurrence of a disease as the intake of the suspected risk factor increases. The relationship is expressed by the proximity of the illustrative curve to the expected relationship.
skin dose
1. the air dose of radiation at the skin surface, comprising the primary radiation plus backscatter.
2. the absorbed dose in the skin.
tolerance dose
the largest quantity of an agent that may be administered without harm.
References in periodicals archive ?
Key words: biphasic dose response, hormesis, individual susceptibility, low-dose exposures, nonmonotonic dose response, nonlinear dose response, public health, regulation, risk assessment.
Drug development and hormesis: changing conceptual understanding of the dose response creates new challenges and opportunities for more effective drugs.
an adaptive response characterized by biphasic dose responses of generally similar quantitative features with respect to amplitude and range of the stimulatory response that are either directly induced (i.
Depending on the outcome of interest, this interplay results in either a J-shaped or inverted J-shaped dose response (sometimes called "U-shaped" or "inverted U-shaped," or "biphasic" or "[beta]-curve").
Briefly, we (Calabrese and Baldwin 2001) estimated the frequency of hormesis using a priori entry and evaluative criteria; some 668 dose responses satisfied the entry criteria.
EPA 2008) found that small changes to assumptions regarding the mathematical form of the dose response assumed for the division rates or death rates of initiated cells--changes too small to meaningfully degrade the correspondence of the model with the underlying data--increased estimates of cancer risk from formaldehyde by several orders of magnitude over those considered to be conservative in the original work.
G) Schematic illustration of the cellular mechanism of the nonmonotonic dose response of BPA in female rat ventricular myocytes.
For epidemiologic investigation, priorities were 1) analysis of individual host risk factors for anthrax infection; 2) exposure reconstruction and risk characterization; and 3) review of unexamined or previously unpublished (potentially classified) animal data related to dose response.
8- >100) * opening Resistance to insertion No dose response Swallowing 0.
This reward recognizes the research I have conducted in the past few years aiming to understand, using computer simulations, the nature of many experimentally observed nonlinear, including non-monotonic, biological dose response curves in the low-dose region for a variety of chemicals," said Dr.
Zhang is Director of The Hamner Center for Dose Response Modeling and is one of the institutes leaders in a public-private partnership with EPA, NIEHS and other federal and global regulatory agencies to advance and transform chemical safety sciences.