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an impurity purposely added, as to a laser crystal or a semiconductor, during manufacturing in order to create a desired characteristic.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Therefore, when Sn[O.sub.2] is doped with Sb, Sr, Ga, Ti, and Ge, the bandgap between the valence band and the conduction band is different; that is, the bandgap values are different.
Preparation of highly efficient Al doped ZnO photocatalyst by combustion synthesis.
Although a doped athlete performs better, he will not benefit from this performance improvement.
In this results, more adsorption efficiency in nickel doped Ti[O.sub.2] compared with synthesis Ti[O.sub.2].
Figure 1(b) shows the X-ray diffraction patterns of the Ni doped Sn[O.sub.2] powder samples in the diffraction angles (2[theta]) between 26[degrees] and 27[degrees].
As for analysis from Figures 2(a) and 2(b), with Cu, In doped, the absorption spectra of the samples regardless of Cu-doped-CdS/In-doped-CdS (394 nm) or In-doped-CdS/ Cu-doped-CdS (377 nm) began to move towards the long wavelength compared with undoped CdS (364 nm) sensitized Ti[O.sub.2] photoanode.
The J-V characteristics of those QDSSCs samples based on diverse doped ratio are presented in Figure 3, with 4 cycles of SILAR.
Furthermore, ZnO thin film doped with 2 at.% Sn shows the highest current intensity among all of the Sn-doped ZnO thin films, reflecting the best optimal electrical properties.
Hence, since the doped athlete is part of a network around him, the sports world is in need of the state's assistance.
Polyaniline doped with d,l-camphor sulfonic acid and processed from m-cresol solution is one notable exception [4].
Hebard of AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, N.J., surprised scientists at the meeting with evidence that [C.sub.60] films "doped" with potassium become superconductors when chilled to 18 kelvins -- a much higher temperature than he and his colleagues expected, he says.
Usually polyacetylene semiconductors, like traditional semiconductors, need to be "doped" with impurities in order to conduct electricity.