Dolly


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The name of a sheep famous for being the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell. Dolly was grown from an egg, the nucleus of which had been replaced with the DNA from the mammary tissue of a six-year-old ewe

Dolly

the first mammal, a sheep, to be created by the cloning of an adult cell by NUCLEAR TRANSFER (see also ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION). The nucleus from a quiescent (see QUIESCENCE), adult udder cell of a finn Dorset ewe was transferred into an unfertilized OVUM from which the nucleus had been removed i.e. an enucleate OOCYTE, of a Scottish Blackface ewe. Electric current was applied to induce EMBRYO formation and the embryo introduced into a surrogate Blackface ewe. The process was repeated 276 times.

A lamb was born, called Dolly, to the Blackface ewe, but with almost identical genetic make-up to the finn Dorset ewe from which the genetic material derived.

The creation of Dolly demonstrated that adult cells could be reprogrammed for embryo development.

Dolly developed ARTHRITIS at the relatively young age of 5.5 years, and at 6 years was euthanased, due to development of a progressive lung disease. Whether this was a consequence of the cloning process is unknown.

References in classic literature ?
Dolly looked coldly at Anna; she was waiting now for phrases of conventional sympathy, but Anna said nothing of the sort.
"Dolly, dear," she said, "I don't want to speak for him to you, nor to try to comfort you; that's impossible.
Dolly did not shrink away, but her face did not lose its frigid expression.
Anna lifted the wasted, thin hand of Dolly, kissed it and said:
'But, Martha,' said Gabriel, putting himself in the way as she was moving off with the aid of Dolly's shoulder, 'wouldn't have believed what?
'If it's only for the sake of peace and quietness, father,' said Dolly, urging him to go upstairs.
There's Miss Dolly's a-going you know, and master, and you, and all so happy and so comfortable.
As to Dolly, there she was again, the very pink and pattern of good looks, in a smart little cherry-coloured mantle, with a hood of the same drawn over her head, and upon the top of that hood, a little straw hat trimmed with cherry-coloured ribbons, and worn the merest trifle on one side--just enough in short to make it the wickedest and most provoking head-dress that ever malicious milliner devised.
"Dear heart!" said Dolly, pausing before she spoke again.
Dolly's exhortation, which was an unusually long effort of speech for her, was uttered in the soothing persuasive tone with which she would have tried to prevail on a sick man to take his medicine, or a basin of gruel for which he had no appetite.
Dolly was much puzzled at this new word, but she was rather afraid of inquiring further, lest "chapel" might mean some haunt of wickedness.
Poor Dolly's exposition of her simple Raveloe theology fell rather unmeaningly on Silas's ears, for there was no word in it that could rouse a memory of what he had known as religion, and his comprehension was quite baffled by the plural pronoun, which was no heresy of Dolly's, but only her way of avoiding a presumptuous familiarity.